Bladder Cancer

Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

What is non-muscle invasive bladder cancer?

Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, also called superficial bladder cancer, is a cancer that has not grown into deeper layers of the bladder wall.

There are three subtypes based on how they grow:

  • Stage Ta tumours are confined to the bladder lining.
  • Stage T1 tumours have invaded the connective tissue under the bladder lining but have not grown into the muscle of the bladder wall.
  • Stage Tis tumours are flat velvet-like tumours, also known as carcinoma in situ (CIS), that are confined to the bladder wall but have potentially a high risk of spreading into the deeper layers of the bladder.

Stage Ta and T1 tumours usually appear as small grapelike growths (also called papillary) that grow toward the centre of the bladder without growing into the deeper bladder layers. Your surgeon may remove these growths using a method called transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT).

FAQ – What is tumour stage?

Tumour stage (e.g. Ta, T1, T2) indicates how advanced the tumour is (this means, how deep it has grown into or even outside the bladder wall) and whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.


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