Rak gruczołu krokowego ograniczony do narządu

Leczenie zachowawcze

Leczenie zachowawcze

Leczenie zachowawcze jest metodą leczenia, gdzie postęp choroby jest ściśle monitorowany. W raku prostaty może ono przyjąć formę aktywnego nadzoru lub bacznej obserwacji.

Podczas aktywnego nadzoru lekarz monitoruje rozwój nowotworu, opierając się na ścisłym harmonogramie wizyt.  Podczas każdej wizyty wykonuje się kilka testów, między innymi, badanie poziomu specyficznego antygenu prostaty (PSA) we krwi. Celem tej metody jest przejście do innych możliwości leczenia, jeżeli istnieją oznaki, że choroba postępuje. Aktywny nadzór jest metodą leczenia raka gruczołu krokowego ograniczonego do narządu o niskim stopniu w skali Gleasona. Jeśli u pacjenta występuje miejscowo zaawansowany rak gruczołu krokowego, zaleca się inne ścieżki leczenia.

Z kolei baczna obserwacja jest rodzajem leczenia opartym na obrazie klinicznym chorego. Celem tej metody jest przejście do innych opcji leczenia jedynie wtedy, gdy pojawią się objawy. Lekarz może zalecić baczną obserwację, jeśli inne metody leczenia nie są możliwe w indywidualnym przypadku pacjenta.

Pacjent powinien omówić z lekarzem zalety i wady leczenia zachowawczego oraz to, czy w jego konkretnym przypadku metoda ta jest odpowiednia.

Glossary

Ablation therapy

A type of minimally-invasive procedure to remove abnormal tissue. The doctor destroys the abnormal tissue using heat (radiofrequency ablation) or extreme cold (cryoablation).

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Vulva

The female external genitals.

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Vena Cava

The large vein that returns blood with low oxygen from the body into the heart.

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Vagina

The muscular tube leading from the external genitals to the cervix of the uterus in women.

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Vacuum erection device

An external pump with a band on it that a man with erectile dysfunction can use to get and maintain an erection.

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Urologist

A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.

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Urolithiasis

Stone disease.

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Uroflowmeter

A special funnel that is used during a uroflowmetry test. The funnel is connected to a measuring instrument that calculates the amount of urine, rate of flow in seconds, and length of time until you finish urinating.

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Urine leakage

The accidental escape of urine from the bladder.

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Urination cycle

The urination cycle has two phases. One is when the bladder fills up, and it is followed by the urination phase, where the bladder empties.

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Urinary tract

The organ system which produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.

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Urinary sphincter

The muscles used to control the exit of urine in the bladder, through the urethra. When either one of the muscles contracts, the urethra is sealed shut.

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Urinary retention

When you are unable to urinate. This condition can be chronic.

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Urinary incontinence

Involuntary loss of urine.

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Urinary frequency

The need to urinate more often than usual, generally more than 8 times a day.

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Uric acid

A chemical that is created when the body breaks down substances called purines.

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Urgency urinary incontinence

Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) happens when you get a sudden need to urinate which you cannot postpone. The bladder muscle contracts and you urinate when you do not want to.

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Urgency

The sudden need to urinate which is difficult to postpone.

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Urethra

The tube which carries urine from the bladder and out of the body.

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Ureteroscopy (URS)

Treatment option to remove kidney or ureteral stones. A ureteroscope is inserted into the urinary tract via the urethra to pull out the stone.

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Ureteroscope (rigid or flexible)

An endoscope used for the urinary tract. It is inserted into the urethra and can move through the bladder, up the ureter, and even into the kidney.

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Ureter

One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.

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Ultrasound

Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body.

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Ultrasonography

Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body (ultrasound).

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Tumour stage

This refers to how extended a cancer is in the body. It is usually based on the size of the tumour and whether the tumour has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.

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Tumour spillage

When tumour cells reach the blood or another organ during surgery. These cells may grow in a different location and develop into tumours.

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Treatment pathway

One of the main management tools for doctors. The different tasks or interventions are defined, optimized and set in a specific order. With this the medical team can work on the health of a patient together.

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Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

TURP is a standard surgery to treat benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). A part of the prostate is removed to improve the symptoms without making an incision in your lower abdomen. This type of surgery is known as minimally invasive treatment.

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Transobturator

Through the natural space in the hip bone.

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TNM classification

The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is an international classification used to classify tumours according to the size and invasiveness of the tumour (T), whether any lymph nodes are affected (N) and if the cancer has spread to any other parts of your body (M).

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Titanium port

The non-metallic part of an Artificial Urinary Sphincter (AUS) that serves to adjust the pressure of the device.

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Thyroid

A gland found in the neck which controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and how sensitive it is to other hormones.

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Testosterone

A steroid androgen hormone that is produced mainly in the testicles and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics.

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Testicles

The testicles are the male organs that produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone.

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Temporary ED

Erectile dysfunction that is not chronic or permanent.

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Targeted therapy

These are drugs that target the mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow.

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Symptom-guided treatment

Closely monitoring a patient’s condition but postponing therapy until symptoms appear or change.

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Surgical robot system

An instrument to help doctors perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors.

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Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)

When your urethra or urinary sphincter cannot resist the pressure of a full bladder. As a result, you lose urine when the pressure on your lower urinary tract suddenly increases. This can happen during activities like coughing, sneezing, or laughing, exercise like running or jumping, or carrying heavy things like groceries.

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Steroid drug

A drug that tries to reproduce the effect of a hormone in the body. Some steroids are used to treat infections. Other steroid drugs have effects similar to testosterone.

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Spinal cord compression

An emergency condition where a tumour or bone fragment puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord.

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Smooth muscle

Muscle tissue that is responsible for the contraction of hollow organs, like blood vessels

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Shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL)

Treatment option to break stones into smaller pieces using high energy sound waves. Stone fragments pass with urine after the procedure.

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Sexual health

A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality.

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Seminal vesicles

A pair of glands located below the bladder. They produce semen.

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Second-line treatment

Treatment that is given when initial treatment does not work, or stops working.

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Scrotum

A pouch of skin containing the testicles.

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Salvage

A treatment for cancer given together with or after the main treatment. It can be a treatment to prevent recurrence or part of a palliative care approach.

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Risk stratification

A tool to determine a treatment pathway. It is based on disease characteristics combined with personal characteristics like medical and family history or general state of health.

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Retropubic

Behind the pelvic bone.

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Retrograde ejaculation

A condition when semen can no longer go through the urethra during orgasm but goes into the bladder instead. The semen later leaves the body during urination.

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Resectoscope

A type of endoscope used for minimally invasive treatment of BPE.

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Renal vein

This is the vein that carries the blood filtered by the kidney back into the body.

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Renal fascia

Also called Gerota’s fascia, it is a layer of connective tissue that surrounds the kidneys.

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Renal cyst

Fluid-filled sacs located on the kidney. Cysts can be malignant.

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Renal colic

Severe pain in flank, loin, groin, or thigh caused by a stone blocking the normal flow of urine.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Medical name of kidney cancer.

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Renal artery clamp

An instrument used during surgery. The blood flow through the renal artery is blocked with a device called a clamp that compresses the artery.

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Renal artery

The artery that carries a large portion of the blood flow that needs to be filtered to the kidneys.

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Renal

Related to the kidneys.

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Recurrence

The return of cancer after treatment and after a period of time in which the cancer could not be detected. This can happen either in the place where the cancer first was detected, or somewhere else in the body. There is no standard period of time, but most doctors would consider it a recurrence if the cancer had not been detected again for at least one year.

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Rectum

The final section of the large intestine, ending at the anus.

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Radiologist

A medical professional who specialises in imaging techniques. In cancer, the radiologist analyses x-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI, or other scans to diagnose or monitor the tumour.

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Radiofrequency ablation

A medical procedure which uses the heat generated from high-frequency currents to treat kidney tumours.

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Radical nephrectomy

A surgical procedure in which the entire kidney is removed.

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Radiation therapy

A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells.

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Radiation oncologist

A specialist who uses radiation therapy to treat cancer.

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Psychological

Having to do with or affecting the mind.

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Psychiatrist

A medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.

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PSA testing

Testing men for the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in their blood. A high level of PSA in the blood suggests that the cells in the prostate are behaving unusually.

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Prostatectomy

A surgical procedure in which part of or the entire prostate is removed.

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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer.

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Prostate

The gland which produces the fluid which carries semen. It is located in the male lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra.

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Prognosis

The medical term for predicting the likely outcome of health after treatment.

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Primary tumour

The malignant cell growth located where the tumour first began to develop.

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Primary polydipsia

The sensation that your mouth is dry which leads you to drink too much.

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Priapism

A persistent and painful erection of the penis.

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Post void residual urine (PVR)

The amount of urine left in the bladder after urination.

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Physical

Having to do with or affecting the body.

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PH-value

A measure between 0.0 and 14.0 to describe if a fluid is acidic or alkaline. pH values close to 7.0 are neutral, anything above is alkaline, anything below is acidic.

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Petechia

Lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms and legs, caused by a minor haemorrhage in the blood vessels of the skin.

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PET scan

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. A PET scan shows how organs and tissues are working.

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Pessary

A small soluble block that is inserted into the vagina to treat infection or as a contraceptive. It can also be an elastic or rigid device that is inserted into the vagina to support the uterus.

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Perirenal fat

The fat that surrounds the kidney.

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Peripheral oedema

Oedema means swelling. Peripheral oedema refers specifically to swelling of the ankles and legs.

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Perineum

The area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva.

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Perinephric haematoma

A collection of blood next to or around the kidney.

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Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)

Treatment option to remove stones directly from the kidney by placing a tube through the skin.

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Percutaneous

Through the skin.

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Penis

A reproductive organ in men which also carries urine out of the body.

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Pelvic floor muscles

Muscles that support the pelvic organs, including the bladder and rectum.

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Pathologist

A medical professional who studies tissue, blood, or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In cancer treatment, the pathologist helps with the diagnosis and classification of tumours.

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Partial nephrectomy

A surgical procedure in which a part of the kidney is removed.

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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Reactions that the body can have to any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anaemia, muscle mass loss, and loss of appetite.

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Paraesthesia

A prickling (“pins and needles”) or tingling (“falling asleep”) sensation of the skin.

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Palliative care

A concept of care with the goal to optimize your quality of life if you cannot recover from your illness. It involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues.

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Pad test

During the pad test your doctor asks you to wear an absorbent pad. Usually the test lasts between 1 and 24 hours. You have to weigh the amount of urine absorbed by the pad.

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Oxalate

A component found in many kinds of food which may be related to forming kidney or ureteral stones.

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Overactive Bladder Symptoms

A collection of urinary storage symptoms, including urgency, incontinence, frequency and nocturia.

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Osteoporosis

A bone disease characterized by a reduction of bone mass.

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Orchiectomy

A method of surgical castration in which one or both testicles are removed. If only one testicle is removed, this is known as unilateral orchiectomy. If both testicles are removed this is referred to as bilateral orchiectomy.

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Open surgery

A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.

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Oncologist

A medical professional who is dedicated to the diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and general care of a person with any type of cancer.

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Oestrogen

The main female sex hormones which control female characteristics of the body and are important to the reproductive and menstrual cycle.

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Obstructive sleep apnoea

Repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, commonly paired with snoring.

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NSAIDs

A group of medicines used to relieve pain. It is often used to relieve renal colic.

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Non-contrast-enhanced CT

Type of CT scan with low radiation exposure.

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Nocturnal polyuria

When the kidneys overproduce urine at night.

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Nocturia

Waking up one or more times during the night because of the need to urinate.

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New hormonal agents

A group of drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer when standard hormonal treatment is no longer effective.

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Neurologist

A medical doctor who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles.

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Neurologic

Related to the nervous system.

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Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

A complication in the lower urinary tract caused by problems in the nervous system that influences its activity.

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Nerve-sparing surgery

A type of surgery that attempts to save the nerves near the tissues being removed.

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Nephrostomy tube

A tube placed directly into the kidney through the skin. This allows the urine to leave the body.

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Nephron-sparing surgery

Another name for partial nephrectomy, the surgical removal of a kidney tumour together with some of the normal kidney tissue. This surgery aims at preserving as much of the kidney tissue as possible.

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Neoangiogenesis

The process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In cancer this process allows tumours to grow.

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Multidisciplinary

A combination of different branches of expertise. In medicine, it means that for instance urologists, oncologists, psychologists or other medical specialists work together.

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MRI scan

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a technique in which strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to make images of the body.

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Mixed urinary incontinence

Having symptoms of both stress urinary incontinence and urgency urinary incontinence.

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Minimally-invasive surgery

A surgical procedure where there is no need to cut through skin and tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical instruments.

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Minimally-invasive procedure

A surgical procedure where there is no need to make an incision in the body. An endoscope is used to reach the part of the body that needs to be treated through the urethra (see also Endoscope).

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Micturition

Urination.

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Metastatic disease

When a tumour has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.

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Metastasectomy

The surgical procedure to remove metastases. These are tumours that have spread to other organs of the body.

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Metabolic evaluation

Series of blood and urine tests for patients who have a high risk of forming stones.

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Medical oncologist

A doctor who specializes in all types of cancer and mostly uses drugs to treat them.

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Medical history

A brief summary of previous operations, previous and current diseases, known allergies, and drugs you currently take.

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Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET)

Medication that makes the natural passing of stones easier and less painful.

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Mammary glands

Glands located in the breasts. In women, the mammary glands can produce milk.

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Malignant tumour

A cancerous growth which either grows continuously or in spurts. Malignant tumours can metastasize, which means they spread throughout the body.

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Lymphorrhea

Leakage of lymph fluid onto the skin. The fluid leads to skin damage, and may cause an infection.

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Lymphadenectomy

The surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed because they are enlarged due to the presence of a tumour.

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Lymph nodes

Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating how the immune system responds.

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LUTS

Lower urinary tract symptoms. A term used for the symptoms caused by BPE which can also point to other diseases affecting the urinary tract (see also Urinary tract).

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Locally-advanced prostate cancer

A prostate cancer where the tumour has spread outside of the prostate and into surrounding tissue.

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Locally-advanced kidney cancer

A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.

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Localized prostate cancer

A prostate cancer where the tumour is limited to the prostate and has not spread.

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Localized kidney cancer

A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.

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Lobes

A lobe is any division or extension of an organ that is clearly visible without using a microscope.

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Ligament

A short band of tough, flexible fibrous tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.

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LHRH antagonists

Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone, by inhibiting the production of androgens.

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LHRH agonists

Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone in the testicles.

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Laparoscopic surgery

A minimally-invasive surgical technique in which the surgeon does not need to cut through skin and tissue. Instead, the surgeon inserts the surgical instruments through small incisions in your abdomen.

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Kidneys

Two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen that filter the blood and produce urine.

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JJ-stent

A tube that is temporarily placed in the ureter to make sure urine can flow from the kidney to the bladder.

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Invasive

Any procedure in which the doctor inserts instruments into the body, or parts of the body.

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Intravenous urography

An imaging technique where x-ray contrast agent is injected into the vein, usually in the arm.

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Intracavernous injection

An injection into the base of the penis.

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Intermittent catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to help you urinate. An intermittent catheter is manually placed and removed several times a day, to empty the bladder fully.

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Indwelling catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to help you urinate.

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Immunotherapy

A type of cancer treatment which boosts the immune system to fight tumour cells.

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Imaging

Taking images of the body with ultrasound, x-ray or other scanning techniques.

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Hot flushes

A medical condition characterized by redness of the skin, sweating and a sudden feeling of inner heat.

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Hormones

Molecules that are produced in glands and circulate in the blood system to reach their target organs. They affect body functions and behaviour.

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Hormonal therapy

Any treatment option in which hormones are used.

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Histopathological analysis

The examination of tissue under a microscope, to study the presence and characteristics of diseases such as cancer.

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HIFU

High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound. A minimally-invasive procedure that applies ultrasound energy to heat up and destroy cancer cells.

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Hand-foot syndrome

A side effect of some types of drug therapy for cancer. It causes redness, swelling and pain on the palms of the hands and/or the soles of the feet, and in some cases blisters.

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Gynecomastia

A hormonal disorder in which men have benign enlargement of breast tissue.

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Gynecological

Having to do with the health of the female reproductive system, including the vagina, uterus and ovaries, and the breasts.

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Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the aggressiveness of a tumour in the prostate. It is based on the pattern of the cancer cells. Each pattern gets a value between 1 and 5. The pathologist adds the scores of the two patterns that appear in most of the tissue samples after a biopsy. Tumours with a higher score are more aggressive and more difficult to cure.

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Glans

The rounded part forming the end of the penis.

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Gland

A gland is an organ that synthesizes hormones for release into the bloodstream or other parts of the body.

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Fuhrman nuclear grade

Analysing the aggressiveness of a tumour based on the structure of its cells.

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Fragments

Pieces of the stone broken during a procedure.

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Fractionated

In radiology, the act of dividing the dose of radiation into smaller doses with one or more rest periods in between.

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Focal therapy

A general term for a variety of minimally-invasive techniques for destroying small tumours. The main purpose of focal therapy is to limit damage to surrounding tissue.

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Flare

When testosterone levels increase before decreasing as a result of hormonal drug therapy with LHRH agonist drugs.

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First-line treatment

The first treatment given for a disease. It is often part of a standard set of treatment options.

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Fatty tissue

A type of connective tissue made of cells which store fat. Also called adipose tissue.

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Fatigue

This means you feel more tired than usual, you are out of energy, and it doesn’t get better after you sleep. You may also experience pain in your joints, muscles, and chest.

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Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)

A treatment option that uses high energy sound waves to break down tissue.

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Erection chambers

The erectile tissue forming the bulk of the penis.

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Erectile dysfunction

The inability to get or keep an erection.

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Enzyme

Large biological molecules that are responsible for the processes of the metabolism.

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Endoscope

A tube-like instrument to examine the inside of the body. Can be flexible or rigid.

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Endocrinologist

A medical doctor who deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to hormones.

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Embolization

A non-surgical, minimally-invasive procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked to prevent the blood flow from reaching a tumour.

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Digital rectal examination

A test in which the doctor uses a finger to feel the size, shape, and consistency of the prostate to diagnose conditions like an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.

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Diagnosis

The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms.

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Detrusor

A smooth muscle found in the bladder wall. The detrusor muscle remains relaxed to allow the bladder to store the urine, and contracts during urination to release the urine.

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Depot injections

An injection of a drug, usually into the muscle or right under the skin. The drug is either solid or oil-based and the active compound is released over a long period of time, without having to take any extra steps.

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Decompression

Relieving pressure in the kidneys. A nephrostomy tube is placed directly in the kidney through the skin so that urine can leave the body.

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Cytoreductive nephrectomy

Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.

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Cystoscopy

It is a procedure in which the doctor looks inside your body with a cystoscope inserted through the urethra

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Cystoscope

A type of endoscope which is used in the urethra (see also Endoscope, Urethra).

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CT scan

CT stands for Computed Tomography. It is an imaging technique that makes a series of x-ray images of the body.

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CSAP

Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate. In this minimally-invasive technique, freezing temperatures are applied directly to the tumour cells to kill them.

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Cryotherapy

Is the use of low temperatures in medical therapy, to treat either benign or malignant cell growth.

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Contrast agent

A substance that increases the contrast of structures or fluids in the body. It is used in medical imaging (See also Imaging).

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Contraindications

Any symptoms or conditions that make a certain treatment option undesirable.

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Conservative treatment

Monitoring the progress of the stone disease or treatment with medication to ease the natural passing of stones.

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Conservative management

A type of treatment in which the doctor monitors your health and can recommend treatment if necessary.

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Clinical trial

These are experimental research studies designed to answer specific questions about treatments or drugs. They generally test how well a treatment works among patients with specific characteristics.

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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

A type of kidney tumour with a high content of fat.

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Chemotherapy

Is a treatment of cancer with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, like cancer cells.

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Chemical castration

A type of treatment in which drugs are used to stop the production of androgens, or block their effect.

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Catheter

A hollow flexible tube to insert or drain fluids from the body. In urology, catheters are generally used to drain urine from the bladder.

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Castration-resistant prostate cancer

A type of prostate cancer that needs lower levels of androgens to continue to grow.

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Castration

A chemical or surgical treatment in which the production of androgens is stopped, or the effect of the hormones is blocked.

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Cardiovascular disease

A disease involving the heart and the blood vessels.

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Cardiologist

A doctor who specializes in cardiovascular diseases.

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Calculi

Stones.

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Brachytherapy

Sometimes called seed implantation. Radioactive “seeds” are carefully placed inside of the cancerous tissue and positioned to attack the cancer most efficiently.

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Bone scan

A scan of the entire body that can be used to find bone metastases.

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Bladder wall

The different layers of tissue that shape the bladder.

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Bladder neck

The group of muscles that connect the bladder to the urethra. These muscles contract to keep the urine in the bladder, and relax to let the urine pass to the urethra.

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Bladder

Organ which collects urine from the kidneys.

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Biopsy

A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.

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Benign tumour

A non-cancerous growth which will not spread to other organs.

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Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE)

An enlargement of the prostate related to hormonal changes with age.

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Benign enlargement

Cell growth in the body which is not cancerous.

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Asymptomatic stones

Stones that do not cause any symptoms. They are usually found during imaging tests done for another condition.

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Asymptomatic

Any condition which does not cause symptoms and is discovered incidentally.

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Antiangiogenic therapy

Therapy with drugs which prevent the formation of new blood vessels that feed a tumour and allow it to grow.

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Anti-androgen drug

Any drug that blocks the action of androgens.

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Andrologist

The medical specialist that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.

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Androgens

Male sex hormones that control and provide male characteristics like facial hair and lower voice.

Glossary

Anaesthesia (general, spinal, or local)

Before a procedure you will get medication to make sure that you don’t feel pain. Under general anaesthesia you are unconscious and unaware of what is happening to you. Under spinal or local anaesthesia you will not feel pain in the part of your body where the procedure is done. Anaesthesia wears off gradually after the procedure.

Glossary

Anaemia

A lowered level of red blood cells. It is the most common disorder of the blood. It causes fatigue, weakness and poor concentration, among others.

Glossary

Adrenolytic agents

A group of drugs that reduces or stops the production of the hormone adrenaline.

Glossary

Adrenalectomy

The surgical procedure in which the adrenal gland is removed.

Glossary

Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands are organs that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are responsible for releasing hormones.

Glossary

Adenoma

The enlarged part of the prostate.

Glossary

Active treatment

Procedures to remove a kidney or ureteral stone.