Stones can have other causes as well

Some people are more likely to form stones than others. You are at higher risk if you have:

  • Early onset stone disease, especially in childhood or adolescence
  • A family history of stone disease
  • A stone which contains brushite, uric acid, or urate
  • Stones caused by an infection in your urinary system
  • A genetic condition which makes you prone to forming stones
  • A narrowing of your ureters
  • An obstruction at the junction where your ureter meets your kidney

Certain urological conditions may increase the risk of stone disease:

  • Medullary sponge kidney (a birth defect)
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
  • A cyst or a condition called calyceal diverticulum
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Vesicoureteric reflux (an abnormal movement of urine into the ureters or kidneys)
  • Horseshoe kidney (a birth defect)
  • Swelling in one of your ureters, called ureterocele
  • Nephrocalcinosis (too much calcium in the kidneys)

Some other conditions are also associated with stone disease. These include:

  • Hyperparathyroidism (excessive production of the parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands)
  • Gastrointestinal diseases (jejuno-ileal bypass, intestinal resection, Crohn’s disease, malabsorptive conditions, and urinary diversion)
  • Sarcoidosis (inflammation that causes tiny lumps of cells in various organs in your body)

Additionally, stone formation is associated with a number of drugs. Do not stop any prescribed medication unless your doctor advises you to.