A type of minimally-invasive procedure to remove abnormal tissue. The doctor destroys the abnormal tissue using heat (radiofrequency ablation) or extreme cold (cryoablation).
A treatment plan that involves closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. Active surveillance may be used to avoid or delay the need for treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery, which can cause side effects or other problems. During active surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule.
Procedures to remove a kidney or ureteral stone.
The adrenal glands are organs that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are responsible for releasing hormones.
The surgical procedure in which the adrenal gland is removed.
A lowered level of red blood cells. It is the most common disorder of the blood. It causes fatigue, weakness and poor concentration, among others.
Before a procedure you will get medication to make sure that you don’t feel pain. Under general anaesthesia you are unconscious and unaware of what is happening to you. Under spinal or local anaesthesia you will not feel pain in the part of your body where the procedure is done. Anaesthesia wears off gradually after the procedure.
Any condition which does not cause symptoms and is discovered incidentally.
Cell growth in the body which is not cancerous.
A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.
Is a treatment of cancer with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, like cancer cells.
A type of kidney tumour with a high content of fat.
These are experimental research studies designed to answer specific questions about treatments or drugs. They generally test how well a treatment works among patients with specific characteristics.
A substance that increases the contrast of structures or fluids in the body. It is used in medical imaging (See also Imaging).
Is the use of low temperatures in medical therapy, to treat either benign or malignant cell growth.
Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.
The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms.
A non-surgical, minimally-invasive procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked to prevent the blood flow from reaching a tumour.
Large biological molecules that are responsible for the processes of the metabolism.
This means you feel more tired than usual, you are out of energy, and it doesn’t get better after you sleep. You may also experience pain in your joints, muscles, and chest.
A type of connective tissue made of cells which store fat. Also called adipose tissue.
Analysing the aggressiveness of a tumour based on the structure of its cells.
A side effect of some types of drug therapy for cancer. It causes redness, swelling and pain on the palms of the hands and/or the soles of the feet, and in some cases blisters.
The examination of tissue under a microscope, to study the presence and characteristics of diseases such as cancer.
Taking images of the body with ultrasound, x-ray or other scanning techniques.
A type of cancer treatment which boosts the immune system to fight tumour cells.
A tube that is temporarily placed in the ureter to make sure urine can flow from the kidney to the bladder.
Two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen that filter the blood and produce urine.
A minimally-invasive surgical technique in which the surgeon does not need to cut through skin and tissue. Instead, the surgeon inserts the surgical instruments through small incisions in your abdomen.
A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.
A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.
Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating how the immune system responds.
The surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed because they are enlarged due to the presence of a tumour.
A cancerous growth which either grows continuously or in spurts. Malignant tumours can metastasize, which means they spread throughout the body.
The surgical procedure to remove metastases. These are tumours that have spread to other organs of the body.
When a tumour has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.
A surgical procedure where there is no need to cut through skin and tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical instruments.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a technique in which strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to make images of the body.
A combination of different branches of expertise. In medicine, it means that for instance urologists, oncologists, psychologists or other medical specialists work together.
The process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In cancer this process allows tumours to grow.
Another name for partial nephrectomy, the surgical removal of a kidney tumour together with some of the normal kidney tissue. This surgery aims at preserving as much of the kidney tissue as possible.
A medical professional who is dedicated to the diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and general care of a person with any type of cancer.
A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.
A concept of care with the goal to optimize your quality of life if you cannot recover from your illness. It involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues.
A prickling (“pins and needles”) or tingling (“falling asleep”) sensation of the skin.
Reactions that the body can have to any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anaemia, muscle mass loss, and loss of appetite.
A surgical procedure in which a part of the kidney is removed.
A medical professional who studies tissue, blood, or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In cancer treatment, the pathologist helps with the diagnosis and classification of tumours.
A collection of blood next to or around the kidney.
The fat that surrounds the kidney.
Lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms and legs, caused by a minor haemorrhage in the blood vessels of the skin.
The malignant cell growth located where the tumour first began to develop.
The medical term for predicting the likely outcome of health after treatment.
A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer.
A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells.
A surgical procedure in which the entire kidney is removed.
A medical procedure which uses the heat generated from high-frequency currents to treat kidney tumours.
A medical professional who specialises in imaging techniques. In cancer, the radiologist analyses x-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI, or other scans to diagnose or monitor the tumour.
The return of cancer after treatment and after a period of time in which the cancer could not be detected. This can happen either in the place where the cancer first was detected, or somewhere else in the body. There is no standard period of time, but most doctors would consider it a recurrence if the cancer had not been detected again for at least one year.
Related to the kidneys.
The artery that carries a large portion of the blood flow that needs to be filtered to the kidneys.
An instrument used during surgery. The blood flow through the renal artery is blocked with a device called a clamp that compresses the artery.
Medical name of kidney cancer.
Fluid-filled sacs located on the kidney. Cysts can be malignant.
Also called Gerota’s fascia, it is a layer of connective tissue that surrounds the kidneys.
This is the vein that carries the blood filtered by the kidney back into the body.
An instrument to help doctors perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors.
These are drugs that target the mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow.
A gland found in the neck which controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and how sensitive it is to other hormones.
The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is an international classification used to classify tumours according to the size and invasiveness of the tumour (T), whether any lymph nodes are affected (N) and if the cancer has spread to any other parts of your body (M).
One of the main management tools for doctors. The different tasks or interventions are defined, optimized and set in a specific order. With this the medical team can work on the health of a patient together.
When tumour cells reach the blood or another organ during surgery. These cells may grow in a different location and develop into tumours.
This refers to how extended a cancer is in the body. It is usually based on the size of the tumour and whether the tumour has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.
Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body.
One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.
A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.
The large vein that returns blood with low oxygen from the body into the heart.