Glossary

Kidney and Ureteral Stones

Abdominal cavity

The space in the body that contains all the abdominal organs (including bladder, kidneys, urinary tract, genital structures)

Abdominal wall

The muscle and tissue that surrounds the abdominal cavity

Acute renal colic

Renal colic is a type of pain caused by kidney stones. Kidney stones (urolithiasis) are crystals that form from chemicals in the urine. Usually, a stone develops because too much of a single chemical is present in the urine.

Adenocarcinoma

A type of cancer that starts in and has features of glandular cells

Adjuvant therapy

A therapy that is given after surgery or radiotherapy (for example, chemotherapy)

Advanced cancer

A tumour that grows into deeper layers of tissue, adjacent organs, or surrounding muscles.

Agglutination

Adhesions of the foreskin to the glans that tend to resolve spontaneously.

Amyloidosis

A disease that occurs when a substance called amyloid builds up in your organs. Amyloid is an abnormal protein that is usually produced in your bone marrow and can be deposited in any tissue or organ.

Androgen

Group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone

Artery embolisation

Temporary block of the vessels supplying blood to the penis.

Aspiration

The process of drawing a substance (eg, blood) from the body.

Bimanual examination

An examination of the abdomen or pelvis performed with both hands.

Boutonniere

A surgically created opening for the urethra in the perineum.

Buried penis

The penis is not visible or is inside the skin.

Cancer

Abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue

Carcinoma

A cancer that arises from lining cells (epithelia)

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

A type of squamous cell cancer that affects only the cells in the skin and has not grown any deeper.

Cardiovascular

Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.

Chronic infection

An infection that lasts over a long period of time.

Circumcision

Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

Collagen

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It helps connective tissue to be strong and provides cushioning for various parts of the body.

Congenital

A condition existing before birth that is due to different causes.

Corpus cavernosa

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus cavernosum (plural, corpora cavernosa)

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus spongiosum

The mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.

Cryptorchidism

An absence of one or both testes in the scrotum.

CT urography

CT stands for computed tomography. CT urography is an imaging technique that uses contrast agent to improve the visibility of the lymph nodes and abdominal organs during the CT scan.

CUP

Cancer of Unknown Primary; a cancer with metastasis and without known primary cancer.

Curvature

Any normal or abnormal curving of a body part.

Diabetes

A disorder of the metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of urine.

Distant metastases

Tumours that have spread from the original site to other organs or bone.

Diverticulum

A pouch that develops in a tubular structure in the body, such as the urethra.

Doppler ultrasound

A noninvasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells.

Dupuytren’s contracture

A condition that affects the hands and fingers (also called Dupuytren’s disease). It causes one or more fingers to bend into the palm of the hand. It can affect one or both hands and sometimes affects the thumb.

Ecchymosis

Subcutaneous bleeding, hematoma.

Ectopic testis

The testis descended outside the scrotum

Embryologic structure

A tissue or structure formed during development of an embryo

Endocrinological evaluation

Measures of the levels of certain hormones produced by your body.

Epididymis

Cord-like structure on the top and back of each testicle that carries sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.

Fabry’s disease

Abnormal deposits of a fatty substance called globotriaosylceramide in blood vessel walls throughout the body.

Fascia

A flat band of tissue below the skin that covers underlying tissues and separates different layers of tissue. Fascia also encloses muscles.

Fertility rate

The number of offspring born per mating pair, individual, or population.

Fibrosis

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to sperm production.

Gene

A certain area on a chromosome as a matrix for a certain cell component.

General anaesthesia

The state when the patient is completely unconscious and unable to feel pain during medical procedures.

Genetic evaluation

Investigation of the influence of genes on diseases

Glansectomy

Removal of just the head of the penis.

Haematocrit

Measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells (percentage volume).

Haematogenous metasis

Cancer cells which have spread over the blood stream and formed a metastasis.

Haematology

The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood.

Hemochromatosis

Too much iron in the blood can cause testicular failure or pituitary gland dysfunction, by accumulating in this tissue.

Histiocytosis

Histiocytosis is a general name for a group of disorders or “syndromes” that involve an abnormal increase in the number of specialized white blood cells that are called histiocytes.

Histologic examination

Examination of tissue cells under a microscope.

Histological evaluation

The examination of tissue under a microscope.

HPV infection

Infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted disease; some types of HPV can cause cancer.

Hypospadias

An abnormality of the urethra (tube that the urine flows through out of the penis) that is present at birth. The urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.

Hypothalamus

Small part at the base of the brain that links nervous system with the endocrine system by the pituitary gland.

Infertility

When a couple who has unprotected intercourse for a period of two years cannot conceive a baby.

Intramuscular injections

Injections into the muscle often in the buttock or your arm.

Intravenous

Injection into a vein, usually in the arm.

Irrigation

Injection of a solution into the body to cleanse and administer drugs at a specific site.

Ischemia

A restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed to keep tissue alive. Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels and causes damage to tissue.

Laparoscopy

A surgical procedure used to examine and operate the organs in the abdominal cavity

Laser therapy

Use of a laser to cut away cancer cells.

Leukaemia

A cancer that arises from the blood-forming tissue.

Local invasion

Cancer that has grown into the tissue surrounding the location where it started.

Local resection

Surgery to remove a tumour that has not spread to other tissues or organs.

Localised disease

A tumour that is limited to the organ where it started and has not spread.

Localized cancer

Cancer that remains in the location where it started.

Locally advanced disease

A tumour that has grown out of the organ where it started into the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Luteinizing hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to testosterone production.

Lymph node metastatis

Cancer cells which have spread over the lymphatic system and formed a metastasis in a lymph node.

Lymphoma

A cancer that arises from white blood cells (lymphocytes).

Macroscopy

What you can see with the naked eye.

Melanoma

A cancer that arises from pigmented cells (melanocytes).

Metastases

Cancer cells that have spread from the original site of cancer to other tissues or organs.

Metastasis

The spread of cancer from one site in the body to another without direct connection between both sites.

Micrometastasis

A metastasis that is not visible to the naked eye or on special imaging studies usually made up from only few cancer cells.

Microscopy

What you can see through a microscope.

Molecular

Regarding molecules (the smallest particles).

Molecular techniques

Methods to get information about the molecules, for example of the genes.

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an imaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to make images of the body.

Mucinous histology

Mucus-producing cells that can be found in histologic examination under the microscope or by using a specific colouring test.

Mucosa

A mucous tissue lining.

Mucusuria

Mucus in the urine.

Multidisciplinary tumour board

A team of practitioners from different medical specialties who share their professional opinions to plan care for individual cancer patients.

Mumps infection

It is a contagious viral infection of the salivary gland with fever, headache and swelling of the salivary gland in the cheeks.

Neobladder

A substitute reservoir to hold urine after the bladder is removed.

Neomeatus

A surgically created opening for the urethra in the penile shaft.

Neoplasm

New abnormal growth of tissue.

Paraphimosis

The foreskin stuck in the retracted position behind the head of the penis. It is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.

Paternity

The actual potential of fatherhood.

Pelvic lymph nodes

The sum of lymph nodes collecting the lymphatic drainage of the legs, pelvis and pelvic organs.

Penectomy

Surgical removal of part (partial) or all (total) of the penis.

Phimosis

The inability to retract the foreskin over the head of the penis.

Pituitary gland

Small endocrine gland in the brain, originating in the hypothalamus, secreting a variety of hormones.

Plaque

An semi-hardened accumulation of substances from fluids that bathe an area. Examples include dental plaque and cholesterol plaque.

Primary cancer

The first type of cancer to develop, the cancer of origin.

Primary urethral cancer

A malignant tumour in the urethra.

Puberty

A natural process when a child’s body changes into adult body that is able to have an intercourse and reproduce.

PUVA

A type of chemotherapy (psoralens) combined with exposure to ultraviolet light, used to treat severe skin disorders.

Radiotherapy

A type of therapy using radiation to kill cancer cells.

Relapse

When a cancer has come back (Recurrence).

Remission

A state when there is no sign of cancer detectable.

Resection

Removal of tumours from an organ.

RPLND

Removal of the lymph nodes at the back of the abdomen (also called “Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection” ). This surgery is considered for men with a high risk of cancer spreading. It might also be performed to remove any cancer that remains after chemotherapy.

Sarcoidosis

Inflammatory disease that affects different organs mainly lungs and lymph nodes. Collections of cells called granulomas can be found in affected tissue.

Sarcoma

A cancer that arises from other tissues in the body such as bone, cartilage, connective and fat tissue, muscle, nerves or vessels.

Secondary cancer

A tumour that grows from the metastasized cells of primary cancer.

Seminoma

A type of testicular cancer that can grow in men of any age but is less aggressive than non-seminoma.

Sentinel node

The lymph node closest to the tumour that would hold metastatic cells, if present.

Sex glands

In male: testes, in female: ovaries.

Sex hormones

In male androgens – group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone.

Sickle cell disease

A condition in which there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout the body.

Skin graft

A piece of skin taken from one part of the body and placed on another part (usually a wound).

Sleep apnea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.

Sleep apnoea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.

Spongy urethra

Spongy tissue surrounding the urethra.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer that specifically affects epithelial cells.

Superficial cancer

A tumour that grows on the tissue surface without growing into deeper layers or adjacent organs. This type of cancer represents an early stage.

Systemic disease

Disease that affects the entire body.

Testicular cancer

A growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle and can spread throughout the body.

Thalassemia

A blood disorder characterized by less haemoglobin and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.

Tuberculosis

A disease caused by breathing in a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually infects the lungs. TB can also infect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine and brain.

Tumour

A growth of abnormal cells.

Tumour grade

The potential of a tumour to grow aggressively.

Tumour markers

High levels of certain proteins that suggest testicular cancer. Tumour markers are measured in a blood sample.

Tunica albuginea

The whitish membrane within the penis that surrounds the spongy chambers (corpora cavernosa). The tunica albuginea helps trap blood in the corpora cavernosa, thereby sustaining erection of the penis.

TUR

TUR stands for Transurethral Resection. A tube-like instrument is used to remove tissue through the urethra (the canal through which the urine is passed).

Umbilical discharge

Substance produced by the navel.

Urachal residues

Traces of the tissue or cells that formed the urachus before birth

Urachus

A tube-like embryologic structure that connects the forming urinary bladder and the navel before birth.

Urethrectomy

Removal of the urethra. Removal can be partial or complete.

Urinary cytology

The examination of a urine sample for exfoliated cancer cells.

Urinary diversion

A surgical procedure to construct an alternative means of storing and passing urine.

Urinary stoma

An artificial opening for passing urine.

Urinary swab test

Also known as “urine dip test” or just a “urine test”. A test strip is dipped into collected urine to colour-indicate the pH level and the presence of electrolytes and cells.

Urinary tract

The organ system that produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, but the urethra is longer in men.

Urothelial carcinoma

Typically occurs within the urinary tract and affects urothelial cells, as opposed to other types of cells in the urinary tract.

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