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Anyone may develop a kidney stone during his or her lifetime. Stones can form if there is an imbalance in the way your body produces urine. This may be connected to how much you drink and whether there are substances in your urine which trigger stone formation.

Stones can have other causes as well

You are at higher risk if you have:

  • Early onset stone disease, especially in childhood or in teenage
  • A family history of stone disease
  • A stone which contains brushite, uric acid, or urate
  • Stones caused by an infection in your urinary system
  • A genetic condition which makes you prone to forming stones
  • A narrowing of your ureters
  • An obstruction at the junction where your ureter meets your kidney

Certain urological conditions may increase the risk of stone disease:

  • Medullary sponge kidney (a birth defect)
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
  • A cyst or a condition called calyceal diverticulum
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Nephrocalcinosis (too much calcium in the kidneys)
  • Vesicoureteric reflux (an abnormal movement of urine into the ureters or kidneys)
  • Horseshoe kidney (a birth defect)
  • Swelling in one of your ureters, called ureterocele

Some other conditions are also associated with stone disease. These include:

  • Hyperparathyroidism (excessive production of the parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands)
  • Gastrointestinal diseases (jejuno-ileal bypass, intestinal resection, Crohn’s disease, malabsorptive conditions, and urinary diversion)
  • Sarcoidosis (inflammation that causes tiny lumps of cells in various organs in your body)

Additionally, stone formation is associated with a number of drugs. Do not stop any prescribed medication unless your doctor advises you to.

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