All testicular cancers are treated with surgery, with very few exceptions. A cut is made in the groin so the doctor can look at the testicle. Tissue may be taken to confirm the diagnosis and stage. If cancer is found, the whole testicle will be removed (orchiectomy) (Fig. 1). Sometimes a false testicle (silicone implant) can be inserted for a more natural look and feel.
There are usually few complications with removal of the testicle. You might have bleeding or an infection after surgery. In the long term, you might have poor semen quality or low testosterone. This can affect your ability to father children.
Tell your doctor before orchiectomy if you wish to have children after treatment. Most men can become fathers even after treatment for testicular cancer. However, you should be offered semen analysis and cryopreservation of sperm (freezing deposits of sperm samples in a sperm bank) as options.