Izrazi v slovarju
Tukaj najdete vse medicinske izraze, uporabljene v tem spletnem mestu, skupaj z njihovimi razlagami. Iz knjižnice si lahko prenesete tiskalniku prijazno različico slovarja.
A type of minimally-invasive procedure to remove abnormal tissue. The doctor destroys the abnormal tissue using heat (radiofrequency ablation) or extreme cold (cryoablation).
Procedures to remove a kidney or ureteral stone.
The enlarged part of the prostate.
The adrenal glands are organs that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are responsible for releasing hormones.
The surgical procedure in which the adrenal gland is removed.
A group of drugs that reduces or stops the production of the hormone adrenaline.
A lowered level of red blood cells. It is the most common disorder of the blood. It causes fatigue, weakness and poor concentration, among others.
Male sex hormones that control and provide male characteristics like facial hair and lower voice.
The medical specialist that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
Pred posegom boste prejeli zdravilo, da ne bi občutili bolečine. Med splošno anestezijo ste v nezavesti in ne veste, kaj se dogajanja okoli vas. Med spinalno ali področno anestezijo ne občutite bolečine v tistem predelu telesa, na katerem se izvaja poseg. Anestezija izzveneva postopoma po opravljenem posegu.
Any drug that blocks the action of androgens.
Therapy with drugs which prevent the formation of new blood vessels that feed a tumour and allow it to grow.
Any condition which does not cause symptoms and is discovered incidentally.
Stones that do not cause any symptoms. They are usually found during imaging tests done for another condition.
Cell growth in the body which is not cancerous.
A non-cancerous growth which will not spread to other organs.
Povečanje prostate zaradi hormonskih sprememb, ki so posledica staranja.
A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.
A scan of the entire body that can be used to find bone metastases.
Sometimes called seed implantation. Radioactive “seeds” are carefully placed inside of the cancerous tissue and positioned to attack the cancer most efficiently.
A doctor who specializes in cardiovascular diseases.
A disease involving the heart and the blood vessels.
A chemical or surgical treatment in which the production of androgens is stopped, or the effect of the hormones is blocked.
A type of prostate cancer that needs lower levels of androgens to continue to grow.
A type of treatment in which drugs are used to stop the production of androgens, or block their effect.
Is a treatment of cancer with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, like cancer cells.
Endoskopska naprava, ki jo vstavimo v sečnico (glejte tudi endoskop, uretra/sečnica).
Postopek, v katerem zdravnik pogleda v telo s cistoskopom, vstavljenim skozi sečnico, glejte tudi Cistoskop, uretra/sečnica).
A type of kidney tumour with a high content of fat.
These are experimental research studies designed to answer specific questions about treatments or drugs. They generally test how well a treatment works among patients with specific characteristics.
A type of treatment in which the doctor monitors your health and can recommend treatment if necessary.
Monitoring the progress of the stone disease or treatment with medication to ease the natural passing of stones.
A substance that increases the contrast of structures or fluids in the body. It is used in medical imaging (See also Imaging).
Is the use of low temperatures in medical therapy, to treat either benign or malignant cell growth.
Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate. In this minimally-invasive technique, freezing temperatures are applied directly to the tumour cells to kill them.
Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.
Relieving pressure in the kidneys. A nephrostomy tube is placed directly in the kidney through the skin so that urine can leave the body.
An injection of a drug, usually into the muscle or right under the skin. The drug is either solid or oil-based and the active compound is released over a long period of time, without having to take any extra steps.
Gladka mišica v steni mehurja. Mišica detruzor ostane sproščena, da mehurju omogoči shranjevanje urina, in se med uriniranjem skrči, da sprosti urin.
The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms.
A test in which the doctor uses a finger to feel the size, shape, and consistency of the prostate to diagnose conditions like an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.
A non-surgical, minimally-invasive procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked to prevent the blood flow from reaching a tumour.
A medical doctor who deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to hormones.
Cevast inštrument, s katerim pregledamo notranjost telesa. Lahko je gibljiv ali tog.
Large biological molecules that are responsible for the processes of the metabolism.
The inability to get or keep an erection.
The erectile tissue forming the bulk of the penis.
Glavni ženski spolni hormon, ki vpliva na ženske značilnosti telesa in je pomemben za razmnoževalni in menstrualni ciklus.
A treatment option that uses high energy sound waves to break down tissue.
A type of connective tissue made of cells which store fat. Also called adipose tissue.
When testosterone levels increase before decreasing as a result of hormonal drug therapy with LHRH agonist drugs.
A general term for a variety of minimally-invasive techniques for destroying small tumours. The main purpose of focal therapy is to limit damage to surrounding tissue.
In radiology, the act of dividing the dose of radiation into smaller doses with one or more rest periods in between.
Pieces of the stone broken during a procedure.
Analysing the aggressiveness of a tumour based on the structure of its cells.
Having to do with the health of the female reproductive system, including the vagina, uterus and ovaries, and the breasts.
A gland is an organ that synthesizes hormones for release into the bloodstream or other parts of the body.
The rounded part forming the end of the penis.
The Gleason score determines the aggressiveness of a tumour in the prostate. It is based on the pattern of the cancer cells. Each pattern gets a value between 1 and 5. The pathologist adds the scores of the two patterns that appear in most of the tissue samples after a biopsy. Tumours with a higher score are more aggressive and more difficult to cure.
A hormonal disorder in which men have benign enlargement of breast tissue.
A side effect of some types of drug therapy for cancer. It causes redness, swelling and pain on the palms of the hands and/or the soles of the feet, and in some cases blisters.
High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound. A minimally-invasive procedure that applies ultrasound energy to heat up and destroy cancer cells.
The examination of tissue under a microscope, to study the presence and characteristics of diseases such as cancer.
Any treatment option in which hormones are used.
Molecules that are produced in glands and circulate in the blood system to reach their target organs. They affect body functions and behaviour.
A medical condition characterized by redness of the skin, sweating and a sudden feeling of inner heat.
A type of cancer treatment which boosts the immune system to fight tumour cells.
An injection into the base of the penis.
An imaging technique where x-ray contrast agent is injected into the vein, usually in the arm.
Vsak postopek, v katerem zdravnik vstavi instrumente v telo ali dele telesa.
A tube that is temporarily placed in the ureter to make sure urine can flow from the kidney to the bladder.
Votla gibka cev za vstavljanje ali odvajanje tekočin iz telesa. V urologiji se katetri na splošno uporabljajo za odvajanje urina iz mehurja.
Two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen that filter the blood and produce urine.
Simptomi ali bolezenska stanja, zaradi katerih je določen načina zdravljenja nezaželen.
Minimalno invazivna kirurška tehnika, v kateri kirurgu ni treba prerezati skozi kožo in tkivo. Namesto tega kirurg vstavi instrumente skozi majhne zareze na trebušni steni.
Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone in the testicles.
Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone, by inhibiting the production of androgens.
Kratek snop čvrstega, fleksibilnega vlaknatega tkiva, ki povezuje dve kosti ali hrustanca ali pa drži skupaj sklep.
A lobe is any division or extension of an organ that is clearly visible without using a microscope.
A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.
A prostate cancer where the tumour is limited to the prostate and has not spread.
A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.
A prostate cancer where the tumour has spread outside of the prostate and into surrounding tissue.
Lower urinary tract symptoms. A term used for the symptoms caused by BPE which can also point to other diseases affecting the urinary tract (see also Urinary tract).
Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating how the immune system responds.
The surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed because they are enlarged due to the presence of a tumour.
Leakage of lymph fluid onto the skin. The fluid leads to skin damage, and may cause an infection.
A cancerous growth which either grows continuously or in spurts. Malignant tumours can metastasize, which means they spread throughout the body.
Glands located in the breasts. In women, the mammary glands can produce milk.
Medication that makes the natural passing of stones easier and less painful.
A brief summary of previous operations, previous and current diseases, known allergies, and drugs you currently take.
A doctor who specializes in all types of cancer and mostly uses drugs to treat them.
Mešanica simptomov stresnega uhajanja seča in zapovedovalnega uhajanja seča.
Series of blood and urine tests for patients who have a high risk of forming stones.
The surgical procedure to remove metastases. These are tumours that have spread to other organs of the body.
When a tumour has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.
A surgical procedure where there is no need to cut through skin and tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical instruments.
Je kirurški poseg, pri katerem rezanje kože ni potrebno.
To so mišice, ki podpirajo medenične organe, vključno z mehurjem in rektumom.
Magnetnoresonančno slikanje je tehnika, v kateri se za izdelavo slik telesa uporabljajo močna magnetna polja in radijski valovi.
A combination of different branches of expertise. In medicine, it means that for instance urologists, oncologists, psychologists or other medical specialists work together.
The process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In cancer this process allows tumours to grow.
Another name for partial nephrectomy, the surgical removal of a kidney tumour together with some of the normal kidney tissue. This surgery aims at preserving as much of the kidney tissue as possible.
A tube placed directly into the kidney through the skin. This allows the urine to leave the body.
A type of surgery that attempts to save the nerves near the tissues being removed.
Related to the nervous system.
A medical doctor who has trained in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders, including diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles.
Težave v spodnjih sečilih, ki so posledica motenj živčnega sistema, ki vpliva na aktivnost le-teh.
A group of drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer when standard hormonal treatment is no longer effective.
When the kidneys overproduce urine at night.
Potreba po odvajanju seča, ki človeka zbudi iz nočnega spanca.
Type of CT scan with low radiation exposure.
Majhen topen obroček, ki se vstavi v vagino za zdravljenje okužbe ali kot kontracepcijo sredstvo. Lahko je elastičen ali tog pripomoček, ki se vstavi v vagino za podporo maternice.
A group of medicines used to relieve pain. It is often used to relieve renal colic.
Repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, commonly paired with snoring.
Je poseg, pri katerem kirurg prereže kožo in tkiva za neposreden dostop do struktur ali organov.
A medical professional who is dedicated to the diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and general care of a person with any type of cancer.
A method of surgical castration in which one or both testicles are removed. If only one testicle is removed, this is known as unilateral orchiectomy. If both testicles are removed this is referred to as bilateral orchiectomy.
A bone disease characterized by a reduction of bone mass.
A component found in many kinds of food which may be related to forming kidney or ureteral stones.
A concept of care with the goal to optimize your quality of life if you cannot recover from your illness. It involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues.
A prickling (“pins and needles”) or tingling (“falling asleep”) sensation of the skin.
Reactions that the body can have to any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anaemia, muscle mass loss, and loss of appetite.
A surgical procedure in which a part of the kidney is removed.
A medical professional who studies tissue, blood, or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In cancer treatment, the pathologist helps with the diagnosis and classification of tumours.
A reproductive organ in men which also carries urine out of the body.
Through the skin.
Treatment option to remove stones directly from the kidney by placing a tube through the skin.
Predel kože in mišičja pri moškem med mošnjo in anusom, pri ženski med vulvo in anusom.
A collection of blood next to or around the kidney.
Oedema means swelling. Peripheral oedema refers specifically to swelling of the ankles and legs.
The fat that surrounds the kidney.
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. A PET scan shows how organs and tissues are working.
Lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms and legs, caused by a minor haemorrhage in the blood vessels of the skin.
A measure between 0.0 and 14.0 to describe if a fluid is acidic or alkaline. pH values close to 7.0 are neutral, anything above is alkaline, anything below is acidic.
Having to do with or affecting the body.
The amount of urine left in the bladder after urination.
A persistent and painful erection of the penis.
The sensation that your mouth is dry which leads you to drink too much.
The malignant cell growth located where the tumour first began to develop.
The medical term for predicting the likely outcome of health after treatment.
The gland which produces the fluid which carries semen. It is located in the male lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra.
A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer.
A surgical procedure in which part of or the entire prostate is removed.
Testing men for the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in their blood. A high level of PSA in the blood suggests that the cells in the prostate are behaving unusually.
A medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.
Having to do with or affecting the mind.
Preiskava, s katero naredimo številne rentgenske posnetke telesa. CT pomeni računalniška tomografija.
A specialist who uses radiation therapy to treat cancer.
A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells.
A surgical procedure in which the entire kidney is removed.
A medical procedure which uses the heat generated from high-frequency currents to treat kidney tumours.
A medical professional who specialises in imaging techniques. In cancer, the radiologist analyses x-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI, or other scans to diagnose or monitor the tumour.
The final section of the large intestine, ending at the anus.
The return of cancer after treatment and after a period of time in which the cancer could not be detected. This can happen either in the place where the cancer first was detected, or somewhere else in the body. There is no standard period of time, but most doctors would consider it a recurrence if the cancer had not been detected again for at least one year.
Related to the kidneys.
The artery that carries a large portion of the blood flow that needs to be filtered to the kidneys.
An instrument used during surgery. The blood flow through the renal artery is blocked with a device called a clamp that compresses the artery.
Medical name of kidney cancer.
Severe pain in flank, loin, groin, or thigh caused by a stone blocking the normal flow of urine.
Fluid-filled sacs located on the kidney. Cysts can be malignant.
Also called Gerota’s fascia, it is a layer of connective tissue that surrounds the kidneys.
This is the vein that carries the blood filtered by the kidney back into the body.
A type of endoscope used for minimally invasive treatment of BPE.
A condition when semen can no longer go through the urethra during orgasm but goes into the bladder instead. The semen later leaves the body during urination.
Behind the pelvic bone.
A tool to determine a treatment pathway. It is based on disease characteristics combined with personal characteristics like medical and family history or general state of health.
A treatment for cancer given together with or after the main treatment. It can be a treatment to prevent recurrence or part of a palliative care approach.
A pouch of skin containing the testicles.
Organ, v katerem se zbira seč, ki priteče iz ledvic.
Treatment that is given when initial treatment does not work, or stops working.
A pair of glands located below the bladder. They produce semen.
A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality.
Treatment option to break stones into smaller pieces using high energy sound waves. Stone fragments pass with urine after the procedure.
Zbirka simptomov zbiranja urina, vključno z nujnostjo, inkontinenco, pogostnostjo in nokturijo.
Preiskava telesa z ultrazvokom, rentgenskimi ali drugimi tehnikami skeniranja.
Muscle tissue that is responsible for the contraction of hollow organs, like blood vessels
An emergency condition where a tumour or bone fragment puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord.
Notranja in zunanja guba vulve, na obeh straneh vagine.
Cevka, ki se vstavi skozi sečnico v mehur, da vam pomaga pri uriniranju.
Različne plasti tkiva, ki oblikujejo mehur.
A drug that tries to reproduce the effect of a hormone in the body. Some steroids are used to treat infections. Other steroid drugs have effects similar to testosterone.
When your urethra or urinary sphincter cannot resist the pressure of a full bladder. As a result, you lose urine when the pressure on your lower urinary tract suddenly increases. This can happen during activities like coughing, sneezing, or laughing, exercise like running or jumping, or carrying heavy things like groceries.
An instrument to help doctors perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors.
Closely monitoring a patient’s condition but postponing therapy until symptoms appear or change.
These are drugs that target the mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow.
Erectile dysfunction that is not chronic or permanent.
Med testom vas zdravnik prosi, da nosite absorpcijske vložke. Običajno traja test od 1 do 24 ur. Tehtati morate količino urina, ki ga vpije vložek.
The testicles are the male organs that produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone.
A steroid androgen hormone that is produced mainly in the testicles and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics.
A gland found in the neck which controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and how sensitive it is to other hormones.
The non-metallic part of an Artificial Urinary Sphincter (AUS) that serves to adjust the pressure of the device.
The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is an international classification used to classify tumours according to the size and invasiveness of the tumour (T), whether any lymph nodes are affected (N) and if the cancer has spread to any other parts of your body (M).
Through the natural space in the hip bone.
TURP is a standard surgery to treat benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). A part of the prostate is removed to improve the symptoms without making an incision in your lower abdomen. This type of surgery is known as minimally invasive treatment.
One of the main management tools for doctors. The different tasks or interventions are defined, optimized and set in a specific order. With this the medical team can work on the health of a patient together.
When tumour cells reach the blood or another organ during surgery. These cells may grow in a different location and develop into tumours.
This refers to how extended a cancer is in the body. It is usually based on the size of the tumour and whether the tumour has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.
Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body (ultrasound).
Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body.
One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.
An endoscope used for the urinary tract. It is inserted into the urethra and can move through the bladder, up the ureter, and even into the kidney.
Treatment option to remove kidney or ureteral stones. A ureteroscope is inserted into the urinary tract via the urethra to pull out the stone.
The tube which carries urine from the bladder and out of the body.
The sudden need to urinate which is difficult to postpone.
Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) happens when you get a sudden need to urinate which you cannot postpone. The bladder muscle contracts and you urinate when you do not want to.
A chemical that is created when the body breaks down substances called purines.
The need to urinate more often than usual, generally more than 8 times a day.
Involuntary loss of urine.
When you are unable to urinate. This condition can be chronic.
The muscles used to control the exit of urine in the bladder, through the urethra. When either one of the muscles contracts, the urethra is sealed shut.
The organ system which produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.
The urination cycle has two phases. One is when the bladder fills up, and it is followed by the urination phase, where the bladder empties.
The accidental escape of urine from the bladder.
A special funnel that is used during a uroflowmetry test. The funnel is connected to a measuring instrument that calculates the amount of urine, rate of flow in seconds, and length of time until you finish urinating.
A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.
To pomeni, da se počutite bolj utrujene kot običajno, da ste brez energije in da se utrujenost po spanju ne izboljša. Morda boste imeli bolečine v sklepih, mišicah in v prsnem košu.
An external pump with a band on it that a man with erectile dysfunction can use to get and maintain an erection.
The muscular tube leading from the external genitals to the cervix of the uterus in women.
The large vein that returns blood with low oxygen from the body into the heart.
Skupina mišic, ki povezuje sečni mehur s sečnico. Te mišice se skrčijo, da zadržijo urin v mehurju in se sprostijo, da urin preide v sečnico.
The female external genitals.
Cevka, ki se začasno vstavi skozi sečnico v mehur, da vam pomaga pri uriniranju. Intermitentni kateter se ročno vstavi in odstrani večkrat na dan, da bolnik popolnoma izprazni mehur.
Prvo zdravljenje za nadzor bolezni. Pogosto je del standardnega nabora možnosti zdravljenja.