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In most cases kidney cancer is asymptomatic, which means that there are no clear symptoms to indicate it. Most kidney tumours are found during a routine ultrasound or a similar imaging procedure for other conditions such as back pain.

About 1 in 10 people do experience symptoms like pain in the side of the body, abdominal mass or blood in the urine. This could be a sign that the disease has advanced. Some people can also experience so-called paraneoplastic syndromes. These are reactions the body can have to any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anaemia, muscle mass loss, and loss of appetite. Syndromes more commonly associated with kidney cancer include changes in liver enzymes and blood platelets. These changes are usually discovered during tests and normally do not cause any symptoms.

Bone pain or a persistent cough could be signs that the cancer has spread through the body. This is known as metastatic disease.

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