Glossary

Key signs and symptoms urological diseases and injury

Acute renal colic

Renal colic is a type of pain caused by kidney stones. Kidney stones (urolithiasis) are crystals that form from chemicals in the urine. Usually, a stone develops because too much of a single chemical is present in the urine.

Angiographic occlusion

A procedure that uses a special substance and X-ray to collapse the twisted vein of the varicocele.

Atrophy

Shrinking from lack of development or use.

Complete duplication

Ureters are entirely separate throughout the course to the bladder.

Cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder

Duplicated or duplex collecting system

Other names for ureteral duplication.

Dysuria

Pain, discomfort, or burning when urinating

Ectopic ureter

A ureter that connects the kidney to a site other than the bladder.

Ectopic ureterocele

A pouch-like blockage that extends into the bladder opening or the urethra.

Endoscopic decompression

Surgical puncture of a ureterocele to decompress the pouch-like enlargement blocking the urinary flow.

Epididymitis

Inflammation of the tube that stores and carries sperm.

Fallopian tubes

A female reproductive organ that allows eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.

Fertility

The ability to conceive children.

Haematuria

Occurrence of blood in the urine. Can be non-visible (microhematuria) or visible (macrohematuria).

Hematoma

A hematoma is a collection of blood, usually clotted, outside of a blood vessel that may occur because of an injury to the wall of a blood vessel, allowing blood to leak out into tissues where it does not belong.

Hematospermia

Blood in sperm

Hydrocele

Collection of fluid in the scrotum around a testicle.

Lymphatic vessels

Tiny structures that carry lymph, a clear, yellowish liquid that collects in all parts of the body.

Lymphatic-sparing varicocelectomy

A type of surgery that protects nearby lymphatic vessels to lower chance of complications.

Orthotopic ureterocele

The pouch-like blockage is located completely inside the bladder.

Penile curvature

Curvature of the penis is an abnormal bend in the penis that occurs during erection.

Penile fracture

Rupture of one or both of the tunica albuginea, the fibrous coverings that envelop the corpora cavernosa of the penis.

Pyuria

Pus in the urine.

Scrotal pain

Scrotal pain occurs when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain in the scrotum is also often included.

Sperm

Male reproductive cells.

Testicular hypotrophy

Shrinking of the testicles.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord (from which the testicle is suspended) twists, cutting off the testicle’s blood supply, a condition called ischemia. The principal symptom is rapid onset of testicular pain.

Ultrasound

Use of sound waves to create an image of the body’s inner workings.

Ureteral duplication

A kidney has two ureters connecting it to the bladder.

Ureterocele

A pouch-like enlargement of the ureter at the end where it connects to the bladder.

Urinary obstruction

Blocking of the flow of urine.

Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection is an infection in any part of the urinary system: the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.

Varicocele

Enlarged vein in the scrotum above a testicle.

Vesicoureteral reflux

Urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureter (toward the kidney).