Prostate Cancer

Abdominal cavity

The space in the body that contains all the abdominal organs (including bladder, kidneys, urinary tract, genital structures)

Abdominal wall

The muscle and tissue that surrounds the abdominal cavity

Active surveillance

A treatment plan that involves closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. Active surveillance may be used to avoid or delay the need for treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery, which can cause side effects or other problems. During active surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule.


A type of cancer that starts in and has features of glandular cells

Adjuvant therapy

A therapy that is given after surgery or radiotherapy (for example, chemotherapy)

Adrenolytic agents

A group of drugs that reduces or stops the production of the hormone adrenaline.

Advanced cancer

A tumour that grows into deeper layers of tissue, adjacent organs, or surrounding muscles.


Adhesions of the foreskin to the glans that tend to resolve spontaneously.


A disease that occurs when a substance called amyloid builds up in your organs. Amyloid is an abnormal protein that is usually produced in your bone marrow and can be deposited in any tissue or organ.


A lowered level of red blood cells. It is the most common disorder of the blood. It causes fatigue, weakness and poor concentration, among others.


Medication administered before the start of a procedure to manage pain. Under general anaesthesia, you are unconscious and unaware of what is happening to you. Under spinal or local anaesthesia, you will not feel pain in the part of your body where the procedure is done. Anaesthesia wears off gradually after the procedure.


Group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone


Male sex hormones that control and provide male characteristics like facial hair and lower voice.

Angiographic occlusion

A procedure that uses a special substance and X-ray to collapse the twisted vein of the varicocele.

Anti-androgen drug

Any drug that blocks the action of androgens.

Artery embolisation

Temporary block of the vessels supplying blood to the penis.


The process of drawing a substance (eg, blood) from the body.


Any condition which does not cause symptoms and is discovered incidentally.


Shrinking from lack of development or use.

Benign enlargement

Cell growth in the body which is not cancerous.

Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE)

An enlargement of the prostate related to hormonal changes with age.

Bimanual examination

An examination of the abdomen or pelvis performed with both hands.


A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.


Organ which collects urine from the kidneys.

Bladder neck

The group of muscles that connect the bladder to the urethra. These muscles contract to keep the urine in the bladder, and relax to let the urine pass to the urethra.

Bone scan

A scan of the entire body that can be used to find bone metastases.


A surgically created opening for the urethra in the perineum.


Sometimes called seed implantation. Radioactive “seeds” are carefully placed inside of the cancerous tissue and positioned to attack the cancer most efficiently.

Buried penis

The penis is not visible or is inside the skin.


Abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue


A cancer that arises from lining cells (epithelia)

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

A type of early-stage squamous cell cancer that affects only the cells in the skin and has not grown any deeper. It has a high risk of spreading locally and metastasising to other organs or the lymph nodes.


A doctor who specializes in cardiovascular diseases.


Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.

Cardiovascular disease

A disease involving the heart and the blood vessels.


A chemical or surgical treatment in which the production of androgens is stopped, or the effect of the hormones is blocked.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer

A type of prostate cancer that needs lower levels of androgens to continue to grow.


A hollow flexible tube to insert or drain fluids from the body. In urology, catheters are generally used to drain urine from the bladder.

Chemical castration

A type of treatment in which drugs are used to stop the production of androgens, or block their effect.


Treatment of cancer with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, like cancer cells.

Chronic infection

An infection that lasts over a long period of time.


Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis (prepuce).

Clinical trial

Experimental research studies designed to answer specific questions about treatments or drugs. They generally test how well a treatment works among patients with specific characteristics.


Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It helps connective tissue to be strong and provides cushioning for various parts of the body.

Complete duplication

Ureters are entirely separate throughout the course to the bladder.


A condition existing before birth that is due to different causes.

Conservative management

A type of treatment in which the doctor monitors your health and can recommend treatment if necessary.

Corpus cavernosa

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus cavernosum (plural, corpora cavernosa)

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus spongiosum

The mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.


An absence of one or both testes in the scrotum.


Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate. In this minimally-invasive technique, freezing temperatures are applied directly to the tumour cells to kill them.

CT scan

CT stands for computed tomography. This imaging technique makes a series of x-ray images of the body.

CT urography

CT stands for computed tomography. CT urography is an imaging technique that uses contrast agent to improve the visibility of the lymph nodes and abdominal organs during the CT scan.


Cancer of Unknown Primary; a cancer with metastasis and without known primary cancer.


Any normal or abnormal curving of a body part.

Depot injections

An injection of a drug, usually into the muscle or right under the skin. The drug is either solid or oil-based and the active compound is released over a long period of time, without having to take any extra steps.


A disorder of the metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of urine.

Digital rectal examination

A test in which the doctor uses a finger to feel the size, shape, and consistency of the prostate to diagnose conditions like an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.

Distant metastases

Tumours that have spread from the original site to other organs or bone.


A pouch that develops in a tubular structure in the body, such as the urethra.

Doppler ultrasound

A noninvasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells.

Duplicated or duplex collecting system

Other names for ureteral duplication.

Dupuytren’s contracture

A condition that affects the hands and fingers (also called Dupuytren’s disease). It causes one or more fingers to bend into the palm of the hand. It can affect one or both hands and sometimes affects the thumb.


Subcutaneous bleeding, hematoma.

Ectopic testis

The testis descended outside the scrotum

Ectopic ureter

A ureter that connects the kidney to a site other than the bladder.

Ectopic ureterocele

A pouch-like blockage that extends into the bladder opening or the urethra.

Embryologic structure

A tissue or structure formed during development of an embryo

Endocrinological evaluation

Measures of the levels of certain hormones produced by your body.

Endoscopic decompression

Surgical puncture of a ureterocele to decompress the pouch-like enlargement blocking the urinary flow.


Large biological molecules (proteins) that are responsible for the processes of the metabolism.


Cord-like structure on the top and back of each testicle that carries sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.


Inflammation of the tube that stores and carries sperm.

Erectile dysfunction

The inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse.

Fabry’s disease

Abnormal deposits of a fatty substance called globotriaosylceramide in blood vessel walls throughout the body.

Fallopian tubes

A female reproductive organ that allows eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.


A flat band of tissue below the skin that covers underlying tissues and separates different layers of tissue. Fascia also encloses muscles.


This means you feel more tired than usual, you are out of energy, and it doesn’t get better after you sleep. You may also experience pain in your joints, muscles, and chest.


The ability to conceive children.

Fertility rate

The number of offspring born per mating pair, individual, or population.


Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.


When testosterone levels increase before decreasing as a result of hormonal drug therapy with LHRH agonist drugs.

Focal therapy

A general term for a variety of minimally-invasive techniques for destroying small tumours. The main purpose of focal therapy is to limit damage to surrounding tissue.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to sperm production.


In radiology, the act of dividing the dose of radiation into smaller doses with one or more rest periods in between.


A certain area on a chromosome as a matrix for a certain cell component.

General anaesthesia

Use of drugs to make the patient unconscious and insensitive to pain.

Genetic evaluation

Investigation of the influence of genes on diseases


A gland is an organ that synthesizes hormones for release into the bloodstream or other parts of the body.


Removal of just the head of the penis.

Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the aggressiveness of a tumour in the prostate. It is based on the pattern of the cancer cells. Each pattern gets a value between 1 and 5. The pathologist adds the scores of the two patterns that appear in most of the tissue samples after a biopsy. Tumours with a higher score are more aggressive and more difficult to cure.


A hormonal disorder in which men have benign enlargement of breast tissue.


Measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells (percentage volume).

Haematogenous metasis

Cancer cells which have spread over the blood stream and formed a metastasis.


The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood.


Too much iron in the blood can cause testicular failure or pituitary gland dysfunction, by accumulating in this tissue.


High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound. A minimally-invasive procedure that applies ultrasound energy to heat up and destroy cancer cells.


Histiocytosis is a general name for a group of disorders or “syndromes” that involve an abnormal increase in the number of specialized white blood cells that are called histiocytes.

Histologic examination

Examination of tissue cells under a microscope.

Histological evaluation

The examination of tissue under a microscope.

Hormonal therapy

Any treatment option in which hormones are used.


Molecules that are produced in glands and circulate in the blood system to reach their target organs. They affect body functions and behaviour.

Hot flushes

A medical condition characterized by redness of the skin, sweating and a sudden feeling of inner heat.

HPV infection

Infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted disease; some types of HPV can cause cancer.


Collection of fluid in the scrotum around a testicle.


An abnormality of the urethra (tube that the urine flows through out of the penis) that is present at birth. The urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.


Small part at the base of the brain that links nervous system with the endocrine system by the pituitary gland.


Taking images of the body with ultrasound, x-ray or other scanning techniques.


A type of cancer treatment which boosts the immune system to fight tumour cells.


In humans, the inability to become pregnant or carry a pregnancy to full term.

Intramuscular injections

Injections into the muscle often in the buttock or your arm.


Injection into a vein, usually in the arm.


Injection of a solution into the body to cleanse and administer drugs at a specific site.


A restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed to keep tissue alive. Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels and causes damage to tissue.

Laparoscopic surgery

A minimally-invasive surgical technique in which the surgeon does not need to cut through skin and tissue. Instead, the surgeon inserts the surgical instruments through small incisions in your abdomen.


A surgical procedure used to examine and operate the organs in the abdominal cavity

Laser therapy

Use of a laser to cut away cancer cells.


A cancer that arises from the blood-forming tissue.

LHRH agonists

Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone in the testicles.

LHRH antagonists

Drugs used in prostate cancer treatment to stop the production of testosterone, by inhibiting the production of androgens.


A lobe is any division or extension of an organ that is clearly visible without using a microscope.

Local invasion

Cancer that has grown into the tissue surrounding the location where it started.

Local resection

Surgery to remove a tumour that has not spread to other tissues or organs.

Localised disease

A tumour that is limited to the organ where it started and has not spread.

Localized cancer

Cancer that remains in the location where it started.

Localized prostate cancer

A prostate cancer where the tumour is limited to the prostate and has not spread.

Locally advanced disease

A tumour that has grown out of the organ where it started into the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes.

Locally-advanced kidney cancer

A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Luteinizing hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to testosterone production.


Lower urinary tract symptoms. A term used for the symptoms caused by BPE which can also point to other diseases affecting the urinary tract (see also Urinary tract).

Lymph node metastatis

Cancer cells which have spread over the lymphatic system and formed a metastasis in a lymph node.

Lymph nodes

Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating how the immune system responds.

Lymphatic vessels

Tiny structures that carry lymph, a clear, yellowish liquid that collects in all parts of the body.

Lymphatic-sparing varicocelectomy

A type of surgery that protects nearby lymphatic vessels to lower chance of complications.


A cancer that arises from white blood cells (lymphocytes).


Leakage of lymph fluid onto the skin. The fluid leads to skin damage, and may cause an infection.


What you can see with the naked eye.

Malignant tumour

A tumour that can invade the surrounding tissue and spread to other sites (metastasis).

Mammary glands

Glands located in the breasts. In women, the mammary glands can produce milk.

Medical history

A brief summary of previous operations, previous and current diseases, known allergies, and drugs you currently take.

Medical oncologist

A doctor who specializes in all types of cancer and mostly uses drugs to treat them.


A cancer that arises from pigmented cells (melanocytes).


New sites in the body where cancer cells have spread to.


Cancer cells that have spread from the original site of cancer to other tissues or organs.

Metastatic disease

When a tumour has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.


A metastasis that is not visible to the naked eye or on special imaging studies usually made up from only few cancer cells.


What you can see through a microscope.


Regarding molecules (the smallest particles).

Molecular techniques

Methods to get information about the molecules, for example of the genes.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an imaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to make images of the body.

MRI scan

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a technique in which strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to make images of the body.

Mucinous histology

Mucus-producing cells that can be found in histologic examination under the microscope or by using a specific colouring test.


A mucous tissue lining.


Mucus in the urine.


A combination of different branches of expertise. In medicine, it means that for instance urologists, oncologists, psychologists or other medical specialists work together.

Multidisciplinary tumour board

A team of practitioners from different medical specialties who share their professional opinions to plan care for individual cancer patients.

Mumps infection

It is a contagious viral infection of the salivary gland with fever, headache and swelling of the salivary gland in the cheeks.


A substitute reservoir to hold urine after the bladder is removed.


A surgically created opening for the urethra in the penile shaft.


New abnormal growth of tissue.

New hormonal agents

A group of drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer when standard hormonal treatment is no longer effective.


A type of testicular cancer that usually affects younger men and is more likely to grow and spread quickly.


The main female sex hormones which control female characteristics of the body and are important to the reproductive and menstrual cycle.

Open surgery

A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.


A method of surgical castration in which one or both testicles are removed. If only one testicle is removed, this is known as unilateral orchiectomy. If both testicles are removed this is referred to as bilateral orchiectomy.

Orthotopic ureterocele

The pouch-like blockage is located completely inside the bladder.


A bone disease characterized by a reduction of bone mass.

Palliative care

A concept of care with the goal to optimize your quality of life if you cannot recover from your illness. It involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues.


The foreskin stuck in the retracted position behind the head of the penis. It is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.


The actual potential of fatherhood.


A medical professional who studies tissue, blood, or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In cancer treatment, the pathologist helps with the diagnosis and classification of tumours.

Pelvic lymph nodes

The sum of lymph nodes collecting the lymphatic drainage of the legs, pelvis and pelvic organs.


Surgical removal of part (partial) or all (total) of the penis.


The male organ for sex and urination.


The space between the scrotum and the anus in men and between the vagina and the anus in women.

Peripheral oedema

Oedema means swelling. Peripheral oedema refers specifically to swelling of the ankles and legs.

PET scan

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. A PET scan shows how organs and tissues are working.


The inability to retract the foreskin over the head of the penis.


Having to do with or affecting the body.

Pituitary gland

Small endocrine gland in the brain, originating in the hypothalamus, secreting a variety of hormones.


An semi-hardened accumulation of substances from fluids that bathe an area. Examples include dental plaque and cholesterol plaque.

Primary cancer

The first type of cancer to develop, the cancer of origin.

Primary tumour

The malignant cell growth located where the tumour first began to develop.

Primary urethral cancer

A malignant tumour in the urethra.


The medical term for predicting the likely outcome of recovery (health) after treatment.


The gland which produces the fluid which carries semen. It is located in the male lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer.


A surgical procedure in which part of or the entire prostate is removed.

PSA testing

Testing men for the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in their blood. A high level of PSA in the blood suggests that the cells in the prostate are behaving unusually.


Having to do with or affecting the mind.


A natural process when a child’s body changes into adult body that is able to have an intercourse and reproduce.


A type of chemotherapy (psoralens) combined with exposure to ultraviolet light, used to treat severe skin disorders.


Pus in the urine.

Radiation oncologist

A specialist who uses radiation therapy to treat cancer.

Radiation therapy

A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells.


A type of therapy using radiation to kill cancer cells.


The final section of the large intestine, ending at the anus.


The return of cancer after treatment and after a period of time in which the cancer could not be detected. This can happen either in the place where the cancer first was detected, or somewhere else in the body. There is no standard period of time, but most doctors would consider it a recurrence if the cancer had not been detected again for at least one year.


When a cancer has come back (Recurrence).


A state when there is no sign of cancer detectable.


Removal of tumours from an organ.

Risk stratification

A tool to determine a treatment pathway based on disease characteristics and personal information like medical and family history or general state of health.


Removal of the lymph nodes at the back of the abdomen (also called “Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection” ). This surgery is considered for men with a high risk of cancer spreading. It might also be performed to remove any cancer that remains after chemotherapy.


A treatment for cancer given together with or after the main treatment. It can be a treatment to prevent recurrence or part of a palliative care approach.


Inflammatory disease that affects different organs mainly lungs and lymph nodes. Collections of cells called granulomas can be found in affected tissue.


A cancer that arises from other tissues in the body such as bone, cartilage, connective and fat tissue, muscle, nerves or vessels.

Secondary cancer

A tumour that grows from the metastasized cells of primary cancer.

Seminal vesicles

A pair of glands located below the bladder. They produce semen.


A type of testicular cancer that can grow in men of any age but is less aggressive than non-seminoma.

Sentinel node

The lymph node closest to the tumour that would hold metastatic cells, if present.

Sex glands

In male: testes, in female: ovaries.

Sex hormones

In male androgens – group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone.

Sickle cell disease

A condition in which there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout the body.

Skin graft

A piece of skin taken from one part of the body and placed on another part (usually a wound).

Sleep apnea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.

Sleep apnoea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.


Male reproductive cells.

Spinal cord compression

An emergency condition where a tumour or bone fragment puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord.

Spongy urethra

Spongy tissue surrounding the urethra.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer that specifically affects epithelial cells.

Steroid drug

A drug that tries to reproduce the effect of a hormone in the body. Some steroids are used to treat infections. Other steroid drugs have effects similar to testosterone.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)

When your urethra or urinary sphincter cannot resist the pressure of a full bladder. As a result, you lose urine when the pressure on your lower urinary tract suddenly increases. This can happen during activities like coughing, sneezing, or laughing, exercise like running or jumping, or carrying heavy things like groceries.

Superficial cancer

A tumour that grows on the tissue surface without growing into deeper layers or adjacent organs. This type of cancer represents an early stage.

Surgical robot system

An instrument to help doctors perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors.

Symptom-guided treatment

Closely monitoring a patient’s condition but postponing therapy until symptoms appear or change.

Systemic disease

Disease that affects the entire body.


The testicles are the male organs that produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone.

Testicular cancer

A growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle and can spread throughout the body.

Testicular hypotrophy

Shrinking of the testicles.


A steroid androgen hormone that is produced mainly in the testicles and is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics.


A blood disorder characterized by less haemoglobin and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.

TNM classification

The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is an international classification used to classify tumours according to the size and invasiveness of the tumour (T), whether any lymph nodes are affected (N) and if the cancer has spread to any other parts of your body (M).

Treatment pathway

One of the main management tools for doctors. The different tasks or interventions are defined, optimized and set in a specific order. With this the medical team can work on the health of a patient together.


A disease caused by breathing in a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually infects the lungs. TB can also infect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine and brain.


A growth of abnormal cells.

Tumour grade

The potential of a tumour to grow aggressively.

Tumour markers

High levels of certain proteins that suggest testicular cancer. Tumour markers are measured in a blood sample.

Tumour spillage

When tumour cells reach the blood or another organ during surgery. These cells may grow in a different location and develop into tumours.

Tunica albuginea

The whitish membrane within the penis that surrounds the spongy chambers (corpora cavernosa). The tunica albuginea helps trap blood in the corpora cavernosa, thereby sustaining erection of the penis.


TUR stands for Transurethral Resection. A tube-like instrument is used to remove tissue through the urethra (the canal through which the urine is passed).


Use of sound waves to create an image of the body’s inner workings.

Umbilical discharge

Substance produced by the navel.

Urachal residues

Traces of the tissue or cells that formed the urachus before birth


A tube-like embryologic structure that connects the forming urinary bladder and the navel before birth.


One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.

Ureteral duplication

A kidney has two ureters connecting it to the bladder.


A pouch-like enlargement of the ureter at the end where it connects to the bladder.


Removal of the urethra. Removal can be partial or complete.

Urinary cytology

The examination of a urine sample for exfoliated cancer cells.

Urinary diversion

A surgical procedure to construct an alternative means of storing and passing urine.

Urinary frequency

The need to urinate more often than usual, generally more than 8 times a day.

Urinary incontinence

Involuntary loss of urine.

Urinary obstruction

Blocking of the flow of urine.

Urinary sphincter

The muscles used to control the exit of urine in the bladder, through the urethra. When either one of the muscles contracts, the urethra is sealed shut.

Urinary stoma

An artificial opening for passing urine.

Urinary swab test

Also known as “urine dip test” or just a “urine test”. A test strip is dipped into collected urine to colour-indicate the pH level and the presence of electrolytes and cells.

Urinary tract

The organ system which produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.

Urinary tract

The organ system which produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.


A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.

Urothelial carcinoma

Cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system (kidney, urinary bladder, urinary tract) and indicates the type of cancer, which affects urothelial cells as opposed to other types of cells in the urothelial tract. Most bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma).


Enlarged vein in the scrotum above a testicle.

Vesicoureteral reflux

Urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureter (toward the kidney).