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What is locally-advanced prostate cancer?

Locally-advanced prostate cancer refers to a tumour which has spread outside of the prostate. It may be a T3 or T4 tumour, depending on where and how far outside of the prostate it has grown. T3 means that the tumour has grown just outside the prostate or to the seminal vesicles. A T4 tumour means that prostate cancer has invaded the bladder neck, the urinary sphincter, the rectum, or the pelvic floor.

Fig. 3: A T3-prostate tumour which has spread to the seminal vesicles.
Fig. 3: A T3-prostate tumour which has spread to the seminal vesicles.
Fig. 4: A T4-prostate tumour which has spread to the bladder neck, urinary sphincter, and rectum.
Fig. 4: A T4-prostate tumour which has spread to the bladder neck, urinary sphincter, and rectum.

Treatment

If you are diagnosed with locally-advanced prostate cancer, your doctor can recommend treating the cancer with watchful waiting, radical prostatectomy, or a combination of radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. Each treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages. The choice depends on your individual situation.

This section describes the different treatment options which you should discuss with your doctor. This is general information, which is not specified to your individual needs. Keep in mind that individual recommendations may depend on your country and health care system.

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