What is CSAP?
Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP) is an experimental technique to treat prostate cancer. It is a minimally invasive surgery in which freezing temperatures are applied directly to the tumour cells to kill them (Fig. 1).
What is HIFU?
High-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) is an experimental technique to treat prostate cancer. It uses the energy of high-frequency sound waves to heat the cancer cells and kill them (Fig. 2).
What is focal therapy?
Focal therapy is a term for several experimental techniques to destroy small tumours in the prostate. Because the tumour cells are targeted directly, there is not much damage to other tissue in the prostate or the lower urinary tract (Fig. 3).
Your doctor will discuss these treatment options if other therapies are not an option for you. This also depends on your personal preferences and values. You may be offered these treatments as part of a clinical trial.