Drug treatment is a common option for metastatic kidney cancer. There are several types of treatment: Antiangiogenic therapy, commonly described as targeted therapy Immunotherapy Chemotherapy, in combination with immunotherapy These drugs influence the mechanisms that tumours use to grow. All decisions about the right therapy for you are taken after careful consideration of your general
Kidney tumours can spread to other organs or distant lymph nodes. This is called metastatic disease. In metastatic disease, the kidney tumour is referred to as the primary tumour and the tumours in other organs are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend to treat metastatic disease with surgery, usually in combination with antiangiogenic therapy, also
What is locally-advanced kidney cancer? Locally-advanced kidney cancer refers to a tumour which has spread to or beyond the blood vessels, tissue, organs, or lymph nodes surrounding the kidney. It may be a stage III or IV tumour, depending on how far outside the kidney the tumour has spread. If you are diagnosed with locally-advanced
What is localised kidney cancer? Localised kidney cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the kidney and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a stage I or II tumour, depending on its size (Fig 1 and 2). If you are diagnosed with localised kidney cancer, your doctor
Active surveillance is a form of treatment for localised kidney cancer in which the doctor actively monitors the tumour. It is recommended if surgery is not the best option for you and you have a tumour in your kidney which is smaller than 4 cm. Some of the reasons why your doctor may say you
Kidney tumours are classified according to their stage, subtype, and the grade of aggressiveness of the tumour cells. These three elements are the basis for your possible treatment pathway. Staging system Tumour stage indicates how advanced the tumour is and whether or not there are metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs. Kidney tumour
Because there are several types of kidney tumours, the doctor does a series of tests to better understand your specific situation. These tests include a medical history, laboratory tests and scans. Sometimes a family history is also taken. A CT scan or MRI scan will reveal the size of the tumour and if it has
In most cases kidney cancer is asymptomatic, which means that there are no clear symptoms to indicate it. Most kidney tumours are found during a routine ultrasound or a similar imaging procedure for other conditions such as back pain. About 1 in 10 people do experience symptoms like pain in the side of the body,
The causes of kidney cancer are often difficult to determine. General risk factors are smoking and obesity. Having a first-degree relative with kidney cancer or high blood pressure are also potential risk factors. Certain lifestyle changes, most importantly quitting smoking and keeping a healthy weight, may reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer.
There are different stages of kidney cancer. If the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread, this is called localised kidney cancer. In locally advanced kidney cancer, the tumour has grown out of the kidney into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes. Doctors speak of metastatic disease
What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant cell growth (a tumour) in the kidneys. Its medical name is renal cell carcinoma. A tumour in the kidney can also be benign (non-cancerous). Kidney cancer is a general term. There are many variations of tumours in the kidney and stages of the disease. Your treatment and
A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.
A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.
Preoperative chemotherapy Different types of urethral cancer are treated differently. Some urethral cancer, called urothelial carcinoma, specifically affects urothelial cells. Chemotherapy followed by surgery is critical to remove urothelial carcinoma. Chemotherapy that contains platinum (eg, cisplatin, carboplatin) is most effective against urethral cancer. Chemotherapy combinations like MVAC (which uses the drugs methotrexate, vinblastine, Adriamycin [doxorubicin],
Symptoms Primary urethral cancer has no typical early symptoms. Most patients experience bloody discharge from the urethra (haematuria). If you have advanced cancer, you may be able to feel a hard mass in your genital tract. You have problems urinating if the tumour blocks the opening of your bladder or fills out the urethra completely.
After any kind of cancer treatment follow-up is essential to minimise complications and to detect and treat recurrences early. After complete removal of the bladder or other treatments, you will be asked to see your general practitioner, urologist, oncologist, radiologist, or a nurse practitioner at specific, fixed time intervals for monitoring and evaluation. A specialist
Prognostic factors and treatment decisions If your bladder cancer has spread to another body organ (Fig. 1), treatment is unlikely to cure you. Treatment options are limited to controlling the spread of disease (metastasis) and reducing symptoms. Fig. 1: Metastatic spread. Treatment options for metastatic disease Chemotherapy In 90-95% of bladder cancer cases the histological
What is muscle-invasive bladder cancer? About a quarter of patients diagnosed with bladder cancer have a muscle-invasive form that has grown into the muscular part of the bladder wall (stages T2–T4). This type of cancer has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body (metastatic) and needs a different and more radical
Your doctor will take a detailed medical history and ask questions about your symptoms. You can help your doctor by preparing for the consultation. Make a list of your previous surgical procedures. Make a list of the medications that you take. Mention other diseases and allergies that you have. Describe your lifestyle, including exercise, smoking,
What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (tumour) in the bladder. There are several stages of bladder cancer. Your treatment and experience will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour (referred to as “staging” the tumour) and the expertise of your medical team. This section provides general information about
Bladder, kidney and urethral cancer.
What is antiangiogenic therapy? Antiangiogenic therapy is a treatment option for metastatic kidney cancer. These are a group of drugs which slow down tumour growth or possibly even shrink the tumour. They prevent the formation of new blood vessels which feed the cancer and allow it to grow. The formation of vessels is called neoangiogenesis,
Embolisation is a treatment option for locally advanced kidney cancer. In this procedure a blood vessel is deliberately blocked to cut off the blood supply to cancerous tumours. Your doctor may recommend embolisation if you are unfit for surgery and the tumour causes symptoms like bleeding or pain. This treatment is only recommended if surgery
What is ablation therapy? Ablation therapy is a type of minimally invasive surgery doctors use to destroy abnormal tissue, like small tumours, that occur with kidney cancer and prostate cancer. The goal is to remove as many cancer cells as possible. This therapy kills cancer cells by heating them or freezing them. The following types
About this page This page lists resources you may find useful when learning about urological conditions, treatment, clinical research and patient groups. EAU Patient Information does not necessarily endorse, or necessarily have influence over, any of the sites listed on this web page. Cancer patient groups Belgium European Cancer Patient Coalition (ECPC). Belgium Website Europa
What is radiation therapy? Radiation therapy is well-established as a treatment for cancer. High-energy radiation is used to destroy cancer cells. It can be done with external beam radiation therapy or internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy. Usually, no numbing medication (anaesthesia) is needed for radiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy is a treatment option
Radical nephrectomy is the removal of the whole kidney and the surrounding fatty tissue. It is done when it is not possible to leave a functioning kidney behind after a partial nephrectomy. It is generally recommended for kidney cancers that have not yet spread but that have grown into surrounding tissue. It is also used
Partial nephrectomy is used to treat kidney cancer that has not spread to other tissue. It is recommended whenever possible. The aim is to remove the part of the kidney with abnormally growing cells (tumour) but to leave as much as possible of the healthy kidney. How is partial nephrectomy performed? You will be asleep
Cytoreductive nephrectomy is recommended for kidney cancer patients whose cancer has spread to other tissue (metastatic). The goal of cytoreductive surgery is to remove as many cancer cells as possible. To do this, it may be necessary to remove surrounding organs as well. The spleen or the pancreas or parts of the intestines or the
What is immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that uses your own immune system to fight the tumour cells. Discuss with your doctor the advantages and disadvantages of immunotherapy and if it is right for you. Who are candidates for immunotherapy? Kidney cancer Immunotherapy is a treatment option in metastatic kidney cancer. These therapies are
Medical name of kidney cancer.
Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.
Narrow-band imaging (NBI) shines light at specific blue and green wavelengths on tissue inside the body. This light makes the difference between healthy tissue and cancer tissue easier to see so cancer cells can be found and removed. In urology, NBI is used on the inner lining of the bladder, the urinary tract and the
A biopsy involves taking a piece of skin or tissue from the body to look at under a microscope. A doctor will see if the tissue contains cancer or other abnormal cells. The results of the biopsy can help determine the next best step in diagnosis or treatment. How is a biopsy done? A small
Bone scans may be used to see if prostate, bladder, kidney , testicular or penile cancer has advanced. Although the number of bone scans has decreased over the years, these studies are helpful in assessing advanced urologic cancers. In these studies, a radionuclide is injected into the body. Over a period of hours, images are
Classification Prostate tumours are classified according to the tumour stage and the grade of aggressiveness of the tumour cells. These two elements are the basis for your possible treatment pathway. The doctor does a series of tests to better understand your specific situation. Physical examination and imaging can be used to determine the stage of
What is cryptorchidism? The failure of the testicles (or “testes”) to descend into the scrotum (the skin sac below the penis) is called “cryptorchidism”. It is also called having hidden or undescended testicles. The condition is generally uncommon but often affects boys born prematurely. As a male foetus grows, the testicles appear in the abdomen
The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms. This is called a diagnosis. The symptoms listed in the previous section can point to many diseases and not only BPE. This is why you may need to take several tests before the doctor can make a diagnosis. First, the
After removal of your bladder (cystectomy), you’ll need a new way to store and pass urine without a bladder. To do this, your surgeon will create a urinary diversion. The three most commonly used urinary diversions are discussed: The ileal conduit (with urostoma) The neobladder (with internal urine pouch) Rerouting ureters through the skin (ureterocutaneostomy)
The mainstay of treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the urinary bladder. Your doctor has several reasons for recommending removal of the whole bladder: Presence of a muscle-invasive tumour Presence of a tumour that grows aggressively (high grade), that has multiple cancerous areas (multifocal), or that is superficial, but has recurred after
Chemotherapy is a type of drug treatment that uses chemicals to stop cancer cell growth. These chemicals affect any cell in the body that grows rapidly. This includes tumour cells but also hair growth cells and bone marrow, among others. Chemotherapy is usually administered through an IV directly into the bloodstream. Your chemotherapy regimen should
Urography makes images of the bladder, kidneys, and ureters (tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). It gives your doctor information about diseases in the urinary tract. Images are made using a CT-scan (CT urography) or x-rays (intravenous urography, or IVU). CT urography is the most accurate imaging technique for diagnosing dieases in the
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to make images of your body. If you are allergic to contrast dye, MRI may be an alternative to CT to look for cancer spreading. MRI images are particularly useful in showing if cancer has spread outside of the related organs into nearby tissues
Cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system (kidney, urinary bladder, urinary tract) and indicates the type of cancer, which affects urothelial cells as opposed to other types of cells in the urothelial tract. Most bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma).