What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant cell growth (a tumour) in the kidneys. Its medical name is renal cell carcinoma. A tumour in the kidney can also be benign (non-cancerous). Kidney cancer is a general term. There are many variations of tumours in the kidney and stages of the disease. Your treatment and
Drug treatment is a common option for metastatic kidney cancer. There are several types of treatment: Antiangiogenic therapy, commonly described as targeted therapy Immunotherapy Chemotherapy, in combination with immunotherapy These drugs influence the mechanisms that tumours use to grow. All decisions about the right therapy for you are taken after careful consideration of your general
Kidney tumours can spread to other organs or distant lymph nodes. This is called metastatic disease. In metastatic disease, the kidney tumour is referred to as the primary tumour and the tumours in other organs are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend to treat metastatic disease with surgery, usually in combination with antiangiogenic therapy, also
What is locally-advanced kidney cancer? Locally-advanced kidney cancer refers to a tumour which has spread to or beyond the blood vessels, tissue, organs, or lymph nodes surrounding the kidney. It may be a stage III or IV tumour, depending on how far outside the kidney the tumour has spread. If you are diagnosed with locally-advanced
What is localised kidney cancer? Localised kidney cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the kidney and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a stage I or II tumour, depending on its size (Fig 1 and 2). If you are diagnosed with localised kidney cancer, your doctor
Active surveillance is a form of treatment for localised kidney cancer in which the doctor actively monitors the tumour. It is recommended if surgery is not the best option for you and you have a tumour in your kidney which is smaller than 4 cm. Some of the reasons why your doctor may say you
A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.
A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.
Urologic cancers are a collection of diseases related to the genitourinary system of both men and women. These diseases are caused by cells that no longer work properly. These abnormal cells grow uncontrolled in the body. Read more about what cancer is on the page 'What is cancer?'. On this website you will find reliable
What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour in the prostate. Your treatment and experience will depend on a variety of factors including the specific characteristics of the tumour, your general health, your personal preferences and the advice of your medical team. The sections in this series provide general information about prostate cancer, diagnosis,
What is primary urethral cancer? You have been diagnosed with primary urethral cancer. This means you have a cancerous growth (malignant tumour) in your urethra. The urethra carries urine out of the body from the bladder, also known as urinary bladder. In men, the urethra runs through the prostate and the penis (Fig. 1). In women,
What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (tumour) in the bladder. There are several stages of bladder cancer. Your treatment and experience will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour (referred to as “staging” the tumour) and the expertise of your medical team. This section provides general information about
Preoperative chemotherapy Different types of urethral cancer are treated differently. Some urethral cancer, called urothelial carcinoma, specifically affects urothelial cells. Chemotherapy followed by surgery is critical to remove urothelial carcinoma. Chemotherapy that contains platinum (eg, cisplatin, carboplatin) is most effective against urethral cancer. Chemotherapy combinations like MVAC (which uses the drugs methotrexate, vinblastine, Adriamycin [doxorubicin],
Prognostic factors and treatment decisions If your bladder cancer has spread to another body organ (Fig. 1), treatment is unlikely to cure you. Treatment options are limited to controlling the spread of disease (metastasis) and reducing symptoms. Fig. 1: Metastatic spread. Treatment options for metastatic bladder cancer Chemotherapy In 90-95% of bladder cancer cases the
What is muscle-invasive bladder cancer? About a quarter of patients diagnosed with bladder cancer have a muscle-invasive form that has grown into the muscular part of the bladder wall (stages T2–T4). This type of cancer has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body (metastatic) and needs a different and more radical
Bladder, kidney and urethral cancer.
Introduction Looking beyond the scientific and educational needs of healthcare professionals (HCPs), it is EAU’s aim to play a more important role with regards to strengthening patient advocacy. This is accomplished by taking a variety of proactive steps to work together with patient advocate groups. Foundational elements of the EAU’s aim are recognising and cultivating
Urologic conditions Download information for patients about urologic conditions. Click on the links below to read or download the patient information leaflet. Benign prostatic enlargement Bladder cancer Congenital Malformation in the Urinary Tract Cryptorchidism Erectile dysfunction Kidney cancer Kidney and ureteral stones Male hypogonadism Male infertility Nocturia Overactive bladder syndrome Penile curvature Penis cancer Phimosis
There are numerous treatments for urologic cancers and other diseases. On this page you will find an overview of the treatments from A-Z and the treatments per disease. Go directly to Treatments A-Z Treatments per disease Treatments A-Z A Ablation therapy Active surveillance Anti-androgen therapy Anti-angiogenic therapy Autologous Fascial Sling Artificial compression devices in men
What is antiangiogenic therapy? Antiangiogenic therapy is a treatment option for metastatic kidney cancer. These are a group of drugs which slow down tumour growth or possibly even shrink the tumour. They prevent the formation of new blood vessels which feed the cancer and allow it to grow. The formation of vessels is called neoangiogenesis,
Embolisation is a treatment option for locally advanced kidney cancer. In this procedure a blood vessel is deliberately blocked to cut off the blood supply to cancerous tumours. Your doctor may recommend embolisation if you are unfit for surgery and the tumour causes symptoms like bleeding or pain. This treatment is only recommended if surgery
What is ablation therapy? Ablation therapy is a type of minimally invasive surgery doctors use to destroy abnormal tissue, like small tumours, that occur with kidney cancer and prostate cancer. The goal is to remove as many cancer cells as possible. This therapy kills cancer cells by heating them or freezing them. The following types
About this page This page lists resources you may find useful when learning about urological conditions, treatment, clinical research and patient groups. EAU Patient Information does not necessarily endorse, or necessarily have influence over, any of the sites listed on this web page. Cancer patient groups Belgium European Cancer Patient Coalition (ECPC). Belgium Website Europa
What is radiation therapy? Radiation therapy is well-established as a treatment for cancer. High-energy radiation is used to destroy cancer cells. It can be done with external beam radiation therapy or internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy. Usually, no numbing medication (anaesthesia) is needed for radiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy is a treatment option
Radical nephrectomy is the removal of the whole kidney and the surrounding fatty tissue. It is done when it is not possible to leave a functioning kidney behind after a partial nephrectomy. It is generally recommended for kidney cancers that have not yet spread but that have grown into surrounding tissue. It is also used
Partial nephrectomy is used to treat kidney cancer that has not spread to other tissue. It is recommended whenever possible. The aim is to remove the part of the kidney with abnormally growing cells (tumour) but to leave as much as possible of the healthy kidney. How is partial nephrectomy performed? You will be asleep
Cytoreductive nephrectomy is recommended for kidney cancer patients whose cancer has spread to other tissue (metastatic). The goal of cytoreductive surgery is to remove as many cancer cells as possible. To do this, it may be necessary to remove surrounding organs as well. The spleen or the pancreas or parts of the intestines or the
What is immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that uses your own immune system to fight the tumour cells. Discuss with your doctor the advantages and disadvantages of immunotherapy and if it is right for you. Who are candidates for immunotherapy? Kidney cancer Immunotherapy is a treatment option in metastatic kidney cancer. These therapies are
Medical name of kidney cancer.
Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.
What is the prostate? The prostate is a gland located in the lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra (Fig. 1). Only men have a prostate. It produces the fluid which carries semen. The prostate has smooth muscles which help to push out the semen during ejaculation. A healthy prostate is about
What is cryptorchidism? The failure of the testicles (or “testes”) to descend into the scrotum (the skin sac below the penis) is called “cryptorchidism”. It is also called having hidden or undescended testicles. The condition is generally uncommon but often affects boys born prematurely. As a male foetus grows, the testicles appear in the abdomen
Testing is part of the procedure to make a diagnosis for urologic disease. There are many different tests or scans to find out if you have a disease or cancer, the type of disease or cancer, and the stage of the disease or cancer. The type of test used depends on the symptoms. Your doctor
Radiation therapy combined with sensitising chemotherapy is a reasonable alternative for patients who refuse or are not candidates for bladder removal. Evaluation of this approach will consider general fitness (life expectancy), kidney function, prior radiation, prior abdominal operations, and history of other cancers. A consultation with a radiation oncologist is advisable prior to deciding on this treatment.
Narrow-band imaging (NBI) shines light at specific blue and green wavelengths on tissue inside the body. This light makes the difference between healthy tissue and cancer tissue easier to see so cancer cells can be found and removed. In urology, NBI is used on the inner lining of the bladder, the urinary tract and the
A biopsy involves taking a piece of skin or tissue from the body to look at under a microscope. A doctor will see if the tissue contains cancer or other abnormal cells. The results of the biopsy can help determine the next best step in diagnosis or treatment. How is a biopsy done? A small
Bone scans may be used to see if prostate, bladder, kidney , testicular or penile cancer has advanced. Although the number of bone scans has decreased over the years, these studies are helpful in assessing advanced urologic cancers. In these studies, a radionuclide is injected into the body. Over a period of hours, images are
After removal of your bladder (cystectomy), you’ll need a new way to store and pass urine without a bladder. To do this, your surgeon will create a urinary diversion. The three most commonly used urinary diversions are discussed: The ileal conduit (with urostoma) The neobladder (with internal urine pouch) Rerouting ureters through the skin (ureterocutaneostomy)
The mainstay of treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the urinary bladder. Your doctor has several reasons for recommending removal of the whole bladder: Presence of a muscle-invasive tumour Presence of a tumour that grows aggressively (high grade), that has multiple cancerous areas (multifocal), or that is superficial, but has recurred after
Chemotherapy is a type of drug treatment that uses chemicals to stop cancer cell growth. These chemicals affect any cell in the body that grows rapidly. This includes tumour cells but also hair growth cells and bone marrow, among others. Chemotherapy is usually administered through an IV directly into the bloodstream. Your chemotherapy regimen should
Urography makes images of the bladder, kidneys, and ureters (tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). It gives your doctor information about diseases in the urinary tract. Images are made using a CT-scan (CT urography) or x-rays (intravenous urography, or IVU). CT urography is the most accurate imaging technique for diagnosing dieases in the
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to make images of your body. If you are allergic to contrast dye, MRI may be an alternative to CT to look for cancer spreading. MRI images are particularly useful in showing if cancer has spread outside of the related organs into nearby tissues
Cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system (kidney, urinary bladder, urinary tract) and indicates the type of cancer, which affects urothelial cells as opposed to other types of cells in the urothelial tract. Most bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma).