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Life after treatment

Follow-up After penis cancer treatment, your doctor will schedule you for regular visits to check your progress. Visits will be more frequent in the first year or two after surgery and then less often over time. Your doctor will talk with you about how you’re feeling and any symptoms or concerns. A physical exam will

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Penectomy

If a tumour has grown into surrounding tissue, removing it surgically is the best chance of cure. If the tumour is in your penis tissue, some or all of your penis might need to be removed to get rid of the cancer. A recommendation of penectomy raises many questions. Talk with your doctor about your

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An improved approach to prostate cancer

Europa Uomo chairman André Deschamps sets out the need for an improved approach to prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. 30 million men in Europe are confronted with a diagnosis of prostate cancer in their lifetime. Each year 75,000 men die from prostate cancer. A questionnaire amongst our members in 24 European states showed that: Less

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Staging and subtype primary urethral cancer

Tumours are classified by stage and subtype to describe the extent of cancer spread. The potential of the tumour to grow aggressively (tumour grade) will also be assessed. The kind of treatment you receive will depend on these elements. Tumour stage and subtype are based on whether or not the cancer is limited to the

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Symptoms and diagnosis primary urethral cancer

Symptoms Primary urethral cancer has no typical early symptoms. Most patients experience bloody discharge from the urethra (haematuria). If you have advanced cancer, you may be able to feel a hard mass in your genital tract. You have problems urinating if the tumour blocks the opening of your bladder or fills out the urethra completely.

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Follow-up primary urethral cancer

After surgery, your doctor will schedule you for a series of check-ups. During these visits, a urine sample will be checked for cancer cells, and your urethra will be examined with a cystoscope (urethrocystoscopy) and with imaging. Please be sure to attend these visits. Regular check-ups are critical to ensuring that complications or disease recurrences

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Radiation therapy castration-resistant prostate cancer

Castration-resistant prostate cancer can be managed with radiation therapy. The radiation damages and kills cancer cells. The treatment will help to relieve pain and may allow you to live longer. Common side effects are a burning sensation when you urinate, urinary frequency, and anal irritation.

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Treatment urachal cancer

Urachal cancer is often diagnosed at later stages. Based on your disease stage and predicted outcomes, recommended treatment may include: Surgery Chemotherapy Palliative care Recommended treatment and predicted outcomes will be based on your cancer stage. The planned treatment approach should be discussed by a multidisciplinary tumour board. This board is made up of practitioners

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Diagnosis of urachal cancer

The diagnosis of urachal cancer is usually based on: Blood in the urine A tumour located outside, in the middle, or on top of the urinary bladder Mucus-producing cells in the tissue Physical exam and imaging An initial diagnosis will include a physical examination, ultrasound of the abdomen, and a urine test (urinary swab test).

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Treatment testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is usually treated with surgery. The testicle must be removed (orchiectomy) to remove the cancer (Fig. 1). The tissue may be examined during surgery to confirm the diagnosis and stage. Additional surgery, drug treatment (chemotherapy), or radiation therapy also may be needed. Fig. 1: Orchiectomy—incision in the groin area. Surgery to remove the

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Testicular cancer

What is testicular cancer? The testicles (also called the “testes”) are part of the male reproductive system (Fig. 1). They are found in the scrotum—the pouch of skin that hangs below the penis. The testicles make testosterone and sperm. Testicular cancer is a growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle (Fig. 2) and

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Metastatic kidney cancer

Kidney tumours can spread to other organs or distant lymph nodes. This is called metastatic disease. In metastatic disease, the kidney tumour is referred to as the primary tumour and the tumours in other organs are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend to treat metastatic disease with surgery, usually in combination with antiangiogenic therapy, also

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locally-advanced kidney cancer

What is locally-advanced kidney cancer? Locally-advanced kidney cancer refers to a tumour which has spread to or beyond the blood vessels, tissue, organs, or lymph nodes surrounding the kidney. It may be a stage III or IV tumour, depending on how far outside the kidney the tumour has spread. If you are diagnosed with locally-advanced

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Localised kidney cancer

What is localised kidney cancer? Localised kidney cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the kidney and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a stage I or II tumour, depending on its size (Fig 1 and 2). If you are diagnosed with localised kidney cancer, your doctor

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Active surveillance kidney cancer

Active surveillance is a form of treatment for localised kidney cancer in which the doctor actively monitors the tumour. It is recommended if surgery is not the best option for you and you have a tumour in your kidney which is smaller than 4 cm. Some of the reasons why your doctor may say you

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Classification kidney cancer

Kidney tumours are classified according to their stage, subtype, and the grade of aggressiveness of the tumour cells. These three elements are the basis for your possible treatment pathway. Staging system Tumour stage indicates how advanced the tumour is and whether or not there are metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs. Kidney tumour

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Diagnosis kidney cancer

Because there are several types of kidney tumours, the doctor does a series of tests to better understand your specific situation. These tests include a medical history, laboratory tests and scans. Sometimes a family history is also taken. A CT scan or MRI scan will reveal the size of the tumour and if it has

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Ablation therapy

What is ablation therapy? Ablation therapy is a type of minimally invasive surgery doctors use to destroy abnormal tissue, like small tumours, that occur with kidney cancer and prostate cancer. The goal is to remove as many cancer cells as possible. This therapy kills cancer cells by heating them or freezing them. The following types

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Project partners

EAU Patient Information is a collaborative undertaking with numerous project partners contributing to its success. Asklepios Kliniken Around 150 medical facilities in 14 states and more than two million treated patients place Asklepios firmly in the group of Germany's pre-eminent clinic operators. EAU Guidelines Office The EAU Guidelines Office is responsible for the production of

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ED after treatment after treatment for localised prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor in the prostate gland. It is the most common form of cancer in older men. There are various treatment options for localised prostate cancer. Two of the most common ones are radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. These treatment options can affect sexual health, and men frequently experience erectile dysfunction

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Treatment of recurrence

It is possible that prostate cancer comes back after you have been treated. This is known as recurrence. The cancer may come back in the prostate, in tissue around the prostate or pelvic lymph nodes, or in other parts of the body. The follow-up treatment pathway depends on where the cancer is. Your doctor will

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Metastatic prostate cancer

What is metastatic disease? Prostate cancer can spread to other organs or lymph nodes outside the pelvic area. This is called metastatic disease. The tumours in other organs or lymph nodes are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend treating metastatic disease with hormonal therapy. It is important to realise that metastatic disease cannot be cured.

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Hormonal therapy

What is hormonal therapy? Hormonal therapy is a treatment option for locally-advanced prostate cancer. It aims to stop the growth of the tumour. The growth of prostate cancer cells is dependent on male sex hormones called androgens. Testosterone is the most important androgen. Androgens are mainly produced in the testicles. Hormonal therapy either stops the

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Bilateral Orchiectomy

Bilateral orchiectomy, or surgical castration, is a surgery to remove both testicles. It is a treatment option for locally-advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and aims to stop the production of androgens. The surgery can be done under local anaesthesia. If you have a history of cardiovascular disease, your doctor may advise you to see a

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New experimental techniques: Ablation therapy

Besides surgery, radiation, and conservative management there is also ablation therapy (also referred to as focal therapy) as treatment option for localised prostate cancer, such as: Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP) High Intensity Focussed Ultrasound (HIFU) Because the tumour cells are targeted directly, there is not much damage to other tissue in the prostate

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Localised prostate cancer

What is localised prostate cancer? Localised prostate cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the prostate and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a T1 or T2 tumour, depending on its size and where it is located in the prostate. T1 means that the tumour is too

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Diagnostics prostate cancer

PSA testing One of the most frequently used tools to diagnose prostate conditions is a blood test to check the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA). If the PSA level is too high, this may suggest that the cells in the prostate are behaving unusually. This could be because of a tumour in the prostate, but

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Symptoms of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is generally asymptomatic, which means that there are no clear symptoms to indicate it. In most cases, symptoms are caused by benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), or an infection. If prostate cancer does cause symptoms it is usually a sign that the disease has advanced. Because of this it is important that you see

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Semen samples and cryopreservation

Sometimes, semen must be collected for fertility treatment. Several procedures are used, depending on the problem. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): a surgical biopsy of the testicle. Sperm cells can be retrieved and used for fertility treatment TESE is performed using either local or general anaesthesia. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A syringe and a needle are

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Male infertility

What is male infertility? Male infertility means not being able to father children. The word infertility is used when the female partner in a sexually active couple has not become pregnant after 1 year without the use of contraception. If the cause of the fertility problem is found in the man, this is male infertility.

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Erectile dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual disorder. It is the inability to get or keep an erection that allows for satisfying sexual activity. It can happen occasionally or regularly, with or without any clear reason. Some men with ED are not able to get an erection at all. ED

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Treatment of cryptorchidism

If the testicle does not descend on its own, treatment will be needed. The goal of treatment is to prevent problems making sperm and hormones and to lower the risk of cancer developing. Treatment should be done at around 1 year of age or 18 months at the latest. Hormonal therapy In some cases, hormone

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Radical nephrectomy

Radical nephrectomy is the removal of the whole kidney and the surrounding fatty tissue. It is done when it is not possible to leave a functioning kidney behind after a partial nephrectomy. It is generally recommended for kidney cancers that have not yet spread but that have grown into surrounding tissue. It is also used

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Partial nephrectomy

Partial nephrectomy is used to treat kidney cancer that has not spread to other tissue. It is recommended whenever possible. The aim is to remove the part of the kidney with abnormally growing cells (tumour) but to leave as much as possible of the healthy kidney. How is partial nephrectomy performed? You will be asleep

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Follow-up bladder cancer

After any kind of cancer treatment follow-up is essential to minimise complications and to detect and treat recurrences early. After complete removal of the bladder or other treatments, you will be asked to see your general practitioner, urologist, oncologist, radiologist, or a nurse practitioner at specific, fixed time intervals for monitoring and evaluation. A specialist

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Diagnosis of benign prostatic enlargement

The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms. This is called a diagnosis. The symptoms listed in the previous section can point to many diseases and not only BPE. This is why you may need to take several tests before the doctor can make a diagnosis. First, the

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Urinary diversions

After removal of your bladder (cystectomy), you’ll need a new way to store and pass urine without a bladder. To do this, your surgeon will create a urinary diversion. The three most commonly used urinary diversions are discussed: The ileal conduit (with urostoma) The neobladder (with internal urine pouch) Rerouting ureters through the skin (ureterocutaneostomy)

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Cystectomy

The mainstay of treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the urinary bladder. Your doctor has several reasons for recommending removal of the whole bladder: Presence of a muscle-invasive tumour Presence of a tumour that grows aggressively (high grade), that has multiple cancerous areas (multifocal), or that is superficial, but has recurred after

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Classification and staging bladder cancer

Classification Bladder tumours are classified by tumour stage and subtype and by grade of aggressiveness of the tumour cells. Staging is a standard way to describe the extent of cancer spread. The kind of treatment you receive will depend on these elements. Stage and subtype Tumour stage is based on whether or not the cancer

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Bladder cancer prevention

A higher risk does not necessarily mean that someone gets cancer. Sometimes bladder cancer develops without any known cause. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle. If you smoke, try to stop. Follow workplace safety rules and avoid exposure to harmful chemicals. Some evidence suggests that drinking a lot of fluids, mainly water, might

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Coping with cancer

What is the impact of cancer on my life? Getting diagnosed with cancer has a great impact on your life and the lives of your loved ones. It can cause feelings of anxiety, uncertainty, fear, or even depression. Undergoing treatment for cancer is intense and will affect your work and social life. You may worry about

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a type of drug treatment that uses chemicals to stop cancer cell growth. These chemicals affect any cell in the body that grows rapidly. This includes tumour cells but also hair growth cells and bone marrow, among others. Chemotherapy is usually administered through an IV directly into the bloodstream. Your chemotherapy regimen should

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Instillation treatment

What is intravesical therapy? With intravesical therapy for bladder cancer, drugs are put directly into the bladder through a catheter, instead of being injected into a vein or swallowed. Both immunotherapy and chemotherapy drugs can be given this way. A single, immediate intravesical instillation of chemotherapy after TURBT If a superficial tumour can be fully

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Urine biomarkers for bladder cancer

What is a biomarker? Biomarkers are substances that doctors can measure in the body to help them tell if a patient has a disease, how a disease is developing or if a treatment is working. Urine biomarker tests for bladder cancer Early detection of bladder cancer can improve the chance of successful treatment. Therefore, doctors

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Diagnosis bladder cancer

Your doctor will take a detailed medical history and ask questions about your symptoms. You can help your doctor by preparing for the consultation. Make a list of your previous surgical procedures. Make a list of the medications that you take. Mention other diseases and allergies that you have. Describe your lifestyle, including exercise, smoking,

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Bladder cancer

What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (tumour) in the bladder. There are several stages of bladder cancer. Your treatment and experience will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour (referred to as “staging” the tumour) and the expertise of your medical team. This section provides general information about

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Primary urethral cancer

What is primary urethral cancer? You have been diagnosed with primary urethral cancer. This means you have a cancerous growth (malignant tumour) in your urethra. The urethra carries urine out of the body from the bladder, also known as urinary bladder. In men, the urethra runs through the prostate and the penis (Fig. 1a). In women,

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What is cancer?

What is cancer? Our bodies are made up of trillions of cells. Usually, every cell has a certain function in the body. Cancer is caused by cells that no longer work properly. Uncontrolled cell growth can crowd out other cells and become a tumour (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Cancer cells crowding out healthy cells. Types of

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Kidney cancer

What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant cell growth (a tumour) in the kidneys. Its medical name is renal cell carcinoma. A tumour in the kidney can also be benign (non-cancerous). Kidney cancer is a general term. There are many variations of tumours in the kidney and stages of the disease. Your treatment and

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Working Group 2016 – 2018

In March 2016 this excellent team of experts was established, dedicated to developing new patient information material, updating existing topics and exploring new ways to further develop the Patient Information initiative. Prof. Dr. med. Thorsten Bach (Chairman 2012 - 2018) Chefarzt Klinik für Urologie Asklepios Klinikum Harburg Eißendorfer Pferdeweg 52 - D- 21075 Hamburg Tel.:

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Classification and risk stratification

Classification Prostate tumours are classified according to the tumour stage and the grade of aggressiveness of the tumour cells. These two elements are the basis for your possible treatment pathway. The doctor does a series of tests to better understand your specific situation. Physical examination and imaging can be used to determine the stage of

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Coping with hair loss and thinning

Coping with hair loss and thinning Hair loss due to cancer treatment can be very distressing. There are some practical things you can do to help. Tips for possible complete hair loss Ask about a wig before you start treatment, so you can match the colour and texture of your real hair. If you are

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Urography

Urography makes images of the bladder, kidneys, and ureters (tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). It gives your doctor information about diseases in the urinary tract. Images are made using a CT-scan (CT urography) or x-rays (intravenous urography, or IVU). CT urography is the most accurate imaging technique for diagnosing dieases in the

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TURBT

What is TURBT? Transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) is the surgical removal (resection) of bladder tumours. This procedure is both diagnostic and therapeutic. It is diagnostic because the surgeon removes the tumour and all additional tissue necessary for examination under a microscope (histological assessment). TURBT is also therapeutic because complete removal of all visible

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Radiologist

A medical professional who specialises in imaging techniques. In cancer, the radiologist analyses x-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI, or other scans to diagnose or monitor the tumour.

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