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Treatment penis cancer

This section offers general information. Your specific treatment will be recommended by your doctor based on your individual needs. Individual recommendations may depend on your country and health care system. The treatment you have will depend on: what you prefer what your doctor thinks is best for your type of cancer which treatments are available

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Classification penis cancer

Penis cancer is classified by stage based on the aggressiveness of the cancer cells. Staging is a standard way to describe whether the cancer has spread. The kind of treatment you receive will depend on the stage. For staging, the Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is used. This classification system describes the penile tumour (T),

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Diagnosis penis cancer

Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms and medical history. The doctor will do a physical exam of your penis and check the lymph nodes in your groin for swelling. Tests might be arranged if your doctor thinks you could have penis cancer: Fluid might be drawn from swollen lymph nodes for examination

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Types of penis cancer

The type of penis cancer depends on the type of cell that started growing. More than 90% of penis cancer starts in skin cells called squamous cells. Penis cancer develops mostly on the skin at the glans (head) or in the inner layer of the foreskin. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a type of squamous

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Symptoms penis cancer

Penis cancer usually appears on the penis skin. It can look like a rash or a sore that doesn’t heal. You might notice bleeding or a bad smell. If you have a foreskin, it might change in appearance or become too tight to pull back. If you notice these symptoms, ask your doctor if you

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Risk factors penis cancer

The exact cause of penis cancer is not known. Men with certain conditions have a higher risk of getting penis cancer: A foreskin A tight foreskin that cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis (phimosis) Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, usually of the foreskin A condition called lichen sclerosis, which only affects

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Penis cancer

What is penis cancer? Cancer is abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue. When this cell growth starts in the penis, it is called penis cancer or penile cancer. Penis cancer is rare and affects less than 1% of men in Europe. It is more common in men older than age 40, but

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Treatment for men with localised urethral cancer

Partial urethrectomy Partial urethrectomy: If your cancer is limited to the part of the urethra nearest the opening, but still close to the tip, partial removal of the urethra (urethrectomy) with penile preservation may be the best option. Your doctor might also recommend removal of enlarged lymph nodes to rule out metastasis. The main goal

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Staging and subtype primary urethral cancer

Tumours are classified by stage and subtype to describe the extent of cancer spread. The potential of the tumour to grow aggressively (tumour grade) will also be assessed. The kind of treatment you receive will depend on these elements. Tumour stage and subtype are based on whether or not the cancer is limited to the

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Living with testicular cancer

A cancer diagnosis is often stressful and confusing. Good information about your disease can help you feel more in control. Talk with your health care team and learn as much as you can. The more informed you are, the better able you will be to make choices about your care. Living with one testicle A

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Risk factors for testicular cancer

Age 18 to 35 years An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism), in the past or the present Opening for urine on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip (hypospadias) Poor sperm production that makes it difficult getting a partner pregnant Abnormal testicle development Family history (father or brother had testicular cancer) White race

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Testicular cancer

What is testicular cancer? The testicles (also called the “testes”) are part of the male reproductive system (Fig. 1). They are found in the scrotum—the pouch of skin that hangs below the penis. The testicles make testosterone and sperm. Testicular cancer is a growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle (Fig. 2) and

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Primary urethral cancer

What is primary urethral cancer? You have been diagnosed with primary urethral cancer. This means you have a cancerous growth (malignant tumour) in your urethra. The urethra carries urine out of the body from the bladder, also known as urinary bladder. In men, the urethra runs through the prostate and the penis (Fig. 1a). In women,

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Life after treatment

Follow-up After penis cancer treatment, your doctor will schedule you for regular visits to check your progress. Visits will be more frequent in the first year or two after surgery and then less often over time. Your doctor will talk with you about how you’re feeling and any symptoms or concerns. A physical exam will

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Radiation therapy

What is radiation therapy? Radiation therapy is well-established as a treatment for cancer. High-energy radiation is used to destroy cancer cells. It can be done with external beam radiation therapy or internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy. Usually, no numbing medication (anaesthesia) is needed for radiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy is a treatment option

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Penectomy

If a tumour has grown into surrounding tissue, removing it surgically is the best chance of cure. If the tumour is in your penis tissue, some or all of your penis might need to be removed to get rid of the cancer. A recommendation of penectomy raises many questions. Talk with your doctor about your

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Erectile dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual disorder. It is the inability to get or keep an erection that allows for satisfying sexual activity. It can happen occasionally or regularly, with or without any clear reason. Some men with ED are not able to get an erection at all. ED

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Cryptorchidism or undescended or hidden testicles

What is cryptorchidism? The failure of the testicles (or “testes”) to descend into the scrotum (the skin sac below the penis) is called “cryptorchidism”. It is also called having hidden or undescended testicles. The condition is generally uncommon but often affects boys born prematurely. As a male foetus grows, the testicles appear in the abdomen

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Radical prostatectomy

What is radical prostatectomy? Radical prostatectomy is the removal of the entire prostate and the seminal vesicles. For radical prostatectomy you will receive general anaesthesia. Discuss with your doctor the advantages and disadvantages of radical prostatectomy and if it is right for you. Who are candidates for radical prostatectomy? Benign prostate enlargement (BPE) Because transurethral

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Diagnosis of benign prostatic enlargement

The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms. This is called a diagnosis. The symptoms listed in the previous section can point to many diseases and not only BPE. This is why you may need to take several tests before the doctor can make a diagnosis. First, the

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Urinary diversions

After removal of your bladder (cystectomy), you’ll need a new way to store and pass urine without a bladder. To do this, your surgeon will create a urinary diversion. The three most commonly used urinary diversions are discussed: The ileal conduit (with urostoma) The neobladder (with internal urine pouch) Rerouting ureters through the skin (ureterocutaneostomy)

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Cystectomy

The mainstay of treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the urinary bladder. Your doctor has several reasons for recommending removal of the whole bladder: Presence of a muscle-invasive tumour Presence of a tumour that grows aggressively (high grade), that has multiple cancerous areas (multifocal), or that is superficial, but has recurred after

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Side effects of radiotherapy

Side effects during treatment Radiotherapy affects people in different ways, so it's difficult to predict exactly how you will react. Some people have only mild side effects but for others the side effects are more severe. Some of the main side effects are explained below. Tiredness and weakness Most people feel tired while they are

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