What is cancer? Our bodies are made up of trillions of cells. Usually, every cell has a certain function in the body. Cancer is caused by cells that no longer work properly. Uncontrolled cell growth can crowd out other cells and become a tumour (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Cancer cells crowding out healthy cells. Types of
About prostate cancer What is the prostate, and what does it do? The prostate is a small gland that forms part of your reproductive system. It is about the size of a golf ball and surrounds the tube that empties urine from your bladder, called the urethra. The prostate makes a thick white fluid that
On this page you will find FAQs about COVID-19 and Kidney Cancer. Find more FAQs on our page FAQs about COVID-19. 1 Q: What are some of the renal complications that might arise as a result of COVID-19 infection? A: In most patients COVID-19 infection is minor, but in those admitted to hospital there is
On this page you will find FAQs about COVID-19 and Prostate Cancer. Find more FAQs on our page FAQs about COVID-19. 1 Q: I am participating in a clinical trial for prostate cancer, what should I know? A: A good place to start is visiting your cancer centre or healthcare professionals’ website. Be mindful of
On this page you will find FAQs about COVID-19 and Bladder Cancer. Find more FAQs on our page FAQs about COVID-19. 1 Q: What can I do, as a caregiver, to help my loved one who has bladder cancer? A: Here are some active ways to help your loved ones: Remind them of the basic
Urologic cancers are a collection of diseases related to the genitourinary system of both men and women. These diseases are caused by cells that no longer work properly. These abnormal cells grow uncontrolled in the body. Read more about what cancer is on the page 'What is cancer?'. On this website you will find reliable
What is penis cancer? Cancer is abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue. When this cell growth starts in the penis, it is called penis cancer or penile cancer. Penis cancer is rare and affects less than 1% of men in Europe. It is more common in men older than age 40, but
What is the urachus? The urachus is a tube-like structure that forms in a developing embryo. It connects the umbilical cord to the urinary bladder before birth. After birth, the urachus usually shrinks into a small ligament. However, traces of the urachus (called urachal residues) can be detected in up to one-third of adults. Urachal
What is testicular cancer? The testicles (also called the “testes”) are part of the male reproductive system (Fig. 1). They are found in the scrotum—the pouch of skin that hangs below the penis. The testicles make testosterone and sperm. Testicular cancer is a growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle (Fig. 2) and
About the prostate What is the prostate? The prostate is a small gland that forms part of a man’s reproductive system. It is about the size of a golf ball and surrounds the tube that empties urine from the bladder, called the urethra. It is normal for the prostate to swell as a man gets
What is primary urethral cancer? You have been diagnosed with primary urethral cancer. This means you have a cancerous growth (malignant tumour) in your urethra. The urethra carries urine out of the body from the bladder, also known as urinary bladder. In men, the urethra runs through the prostate and the penis (Fig. 1). In women,
What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant cell growth (a tumour) in the kidneys. Its medical name is renal cell carcinoma. A tumour in the kidney can also be benign (non-cancerous). Kidney cancer is a general term. There are many variations of tumours in the kidney and stages of the disease. Your treatment and
What is bladder cancer? [glossary_exclude]Bladder[/glossary_exclude] cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (tumour) in the bladder. There are several stages of bladder cancer. Your treatment and experience will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour (referred to as “staging” the tumour) and the expertise of your medical team. This section provides general information about
Tumour removal Surgery is recommended to remove a urachal cancer tumour that has not spread to other tissues or organs. The tumour will be removed along with surrounding tissue in the abdomen, the navel, and the top of the bladder to make sure no cancer cells remain. In rare cases, some or all of the
12 ways to reduce your cancer risk The European Code Against Cancer (ECAC) is an initiative of the European Commission, developed by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The ECAC aims to inform people about actions they can take for themselves or their families to reduce their risk of cancer.
This section offers general information. Your specific treatment will be recommended by your doctor based on your individual needs. Individual recommendations may depend on your country and health care system. The treatment you have will depend on: what you prefer what your doctor thinks is best for your type of cancer which treatments are available
Europa Uomo chairman André Deschamps sets out the need for an improved approach to prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. 30 million men in Europe are confronted with a diagnosis of prostate cancer in their lifetime. Each year 75,000 men die from prostate cancer. A questionnaire amongst our members in 24 European states showed that: Less
Cancer survivorship has traditionally received little prioritisation and attention. For a long time, the treatment of cancer has been the main focus of healthcare providers’ efforts. It is time to increase the amount of attention given to patients’ long-term well-being and their ability to return to a productive and good life. This article describes the
Preoperative chemotherapy Different types of urethral cancer are treated differently. Some urethral cancer, called urothelial carcinoma, specifically affects urothelial cells. Chemotherapy followed by surgery is critical to remove urothelial carcinoma. Chemotherapy that contains platinum (eg, cisplatin, carboplatin) is most effective against urethral cancer. Chemotherapy combinations like MVAC (which uses the drugs methotrexate, vinblastine, Adriamycin [doxorubicin],
Primary radical urethrectomy Your doctor will recommend complete removal of the urethra (urethrectomy), including part of the bladder and the surrounding tissue to ensure the highest chance of cure. Usually, the bladder neck is closed during the procedure, and a new way to store and regulate the flow of urine is created (urinary diversion). Urethra-sparing
Localised urethral cancer Localised primary urethral cancer is confined to the urethra. Treatment for men and women differs. Your doctor will recommend a treatment that aims to remove all cancer and preserve your quality of life. To do this, the location of the tumour is important. Treatment for men localised urethral cancer Treatment for women
Partial urethrectomy Partial urethrectomy: If your cancer is limited to the part of the urethra nearest the opening, but still close to the tip, partial removal of the urethra (urethrectomy) with penile preservation may be the best option. Your doctor might also recommend removal of enlarged lymph nodes to rule out metastasis. The main goal
Castration-resistant prostate cancer can be managed with radiation therapy. The radiation damages and kills cancer cells. The treatment will help to relieve pain and may allow you to live longer. Common side effects are a burning sensation when you urinate, urinary frequency, and anal irritation.
Chemotherapy with docetaxel Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected into the bloodstream to attack cells throughout the body. They can also be applied directly to the tumour. Your doctor may recommend the chemotherapy docetaxel to manage castration-resistant prostate cancer. The drug relieves
Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that uses your own immune system to fight the tumour cells. In prostate cancer the drug Sipuleucel-T is used as immunotherapy. Because your own blood is used to prepare the drug, you need to get blood drawn before the procedure. Immunotherapy is administered through an IV, in an outpatient
Urachal cancer is often diagnosed at later stages. Based on your disease stage and predicted outcomes, recommended treatment may include: Surgery Chemotherapy Palliative care Recommended treatment and predicted outcomes will be based on your cancer stage. The planned treatment approach should be discussed by a multidisciplinary tumour board. This board is made up of practitioners
Testicular cancer is usually treated with surgery. The testicle must be removed (orchiectomy) to remove the cancer (Fig. 1). The tissue may be examined during surgery to confirm the diagnosis and stage. Additional surgery, drug treatment (chemotherapy), or radiation therapy also may be needed. Fig. 1: Orchiectomy—incision in the groin area. Surgery to remove the
Hormonal therapy is a treatment option for metastatic prostate cancer. It aims to slow down the growth of the tumours. The growth of prostate cancer cells is dependent on male sex hormones called androgens. Testosterone is the most important androgen. Androgens are mainly produced in the testicles. Hormonal therapy either stops the production of androgens,
Drug treatment is a common option for metastatic kidney cancer. There are several types of treatment: Antiangiogenic therapy, commonly described as targeted therapy Immunotherapy Chemotherapy, in combination with immunotherapy These drugs influence the mechanisms that tumours use to grow. All decisions about the right therapy for you are taken after careful consideration of your general
Kidney tumours can spread to other organs or distant lymph nodes. This is called metastatic disease. In metastatic disease, the kidney tumour is referred to as the primary tumour and the tumours in other organs are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend to treat metastatic disease with surgery, usually in combination with antiangiogenic therapy, also
What is locally-advanced kidney cancer? Locally-advanced kidney cancer refers to a tumour which has spread to or beyond the blood vessels, tissue, organs, or lymph nodes surrounding the kidney. It may be a stage III or IV tumour, depending on how far outside the kidney the tumour has spread. If you are diagnosed with locally-advanced
What is localised kidney cancer? Localised kidney cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the kidney and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a stage I or II tumour, depending on its size (Fig 1 and 2). If you are diagnosed with localised kidney cancer, your doctor
Active surveillance is a form of treatment for localised kidney cancer in which the doctor actively monitors the tumour. It is recommended if surgery is not the best option for you and you have a tumour in your kidney which is smaller than 4 cm. Some of the reasons why your doctor may say you
It is possible that prostate cancer comes back after you have been treated. This is known as recurrence. The cancer may come back in the prostate, in tissue around the prostate or pelvic lymph nodes, or in other parts of the body. The follow-up treatment pathway depends on where the cancer is. Your doctor will
What is castration-resistant prostate cancer? Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a type of prostate cancer that usually develops during treatment for metastatic disease. Hormonal therapy either stops the production or blocks the action of androgens. This is known as castration. When effective, hormonal therapy stops the growth of the tumour. This effect will not last and
What is metastatic disease? Prostate cancer can spread to other organs or lymph nodes outside the pelvic area. This is called metastatic disease. The tumours in other organs or lymph nodes are called metastases. Your doctor may recommend treating metastatic disease with hormonal therapy. It is important to realise that metastatic disease cannot be cured.
What is locally-advanced prostate cancer? Locally-advanced prostate cancer refers to a tumour which has spread outside of the prostate. It may be a T3 or T4 tumour, depending on where and how far outside of the prostate it has grown. T3 means that the tumour has grown just outside the prostate or to the seminal
What is localised prostate cancer? Localised prostate cancer refers to a tumour which is limited to the prostate and has not extended to other parts of your body. It may be a T1 or T2 tumour, depending on its size and where it is located in the prostate. T1 means that the tumour is too
Local recurrence Local recurrence takes place in the soft tissue where the bladder has been before removal or at the site of the lymph nodes that were removed. This is due to the fact that even after removal of the local pelvic lymph nodes, some nodes are left in place. Most local recurrences appear within
Prognostic factors and treatment decisions If your bladder cancer has spread to another body organ (Fig. 1), treatment is unlikely to cure you. Treatment options are limited to controlling the spread of disease (metastasis) and reducing symptoms. Fig. 1: Metastatic spread. Treatment options for metastatic bladder cancer Chemotherapy In 90-95% of bladder cancer cases the
What is muscle-invasive bladder cancer? About a quarter of patients diagnosed with bladder cancer have a muscle-invasive form that has grown into the muscular part of the bladder wall (stages T2–T4). This type of cancer has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body (metastatic) and needs a different and more radical
What is non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer? Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, also called superficial bladder cancer, is a superficial cancer that has not grown into deeper layers of the bladder wall (Fig. 1). There are three subtypes based on how they grow: Stage Ta tumours are confined to the bladder lining. Stage T1 tumours have invaded the connective
The side effects you might have vary from person to person and depend on the cancer drugs you are taking. Side effects can happen as a direct result of medical treatment. All drugs used to treat cancer cause side effects. It can be easy to confuse drug side effects with symptoms of cancer. Symptoms happen
What is the impact of cancer on my life? Getting diagnosed with cancer has a great impact on your life and the lives of your loved ones. It can cause feelings of anxiety, uncertainty, fear, or even depression. Undergoing treatment for cancer is intense and will affect your work and social life. You may worry about
What is a biomarker? Biomarkers are substances that doctors can measure in the body to help them tell if a patient has a disease, how a disease is developing or if a treatment is working. Urine biomarker tests for bladder cancer Early detection of bladder cancer can improve the chance of successful treatment. Therefore, doctors
A growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle and can spread throughout the body.
A tumour that grows into deeper layers of tissue, adjacent organs, or surrounding muscles.
A tumour that grows on the tissue surface without growing into deeper layers or adjacent organs. This type of cancer represents an early stage.
A tumour that grows from the metastasized cells of primary cancer.
A malignant tumour in the urethra.
The first type of cancer to develop, the cancer of origin.
Cancer that remains in the location where it started.
Abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue.
Bladder, kidney and urethral cancer.
A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.
A prostate cancer where the tumour is limited to the prostate and has not spread.
A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.
A prostate cancer where the tumour has spread outside of the prostate and into surrounding tissue.
A type of prostate cancer that needs lower levels of androgens to continue to grow.
Welcome to our EAU21 Patient Information Resource Centre! Here you can find the recordings of the EAU21 Patient Day thematic sessions, and material such as posters and video presentations. EAU21 Patient Day thematic sessions Bladder Cancer Patient Information Session. Click here to watch. Functional Urology Patient Information Session. Click here to watch. Kidney Cancer Patient
In this video, we’re going to look at the risk of hormone therapy in patients who have cardiovascular disease. Advances in science mean prostate cancer is, in most cases, treatable. Hormone therapy (also know as ADT-androgen deprivation therapy), for example, effectively reduces testosterone levels in your body to help stop the cancer from growing. Click