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Kidney Cancer

Ablation therapy

A type of minimally-invasive procedure to remove abnormal tissue. The doctor destroys the abnormal tissue using heat (radiofrequency ablation) or extreme cold (cryoablation).

Active treatment

Procedures to remove a kidney or ureteral stone.

Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands are organs that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are responsible for releasing hormones.


The surgical procedure in which the adrenal gland is removed.


A lowered level of red blood cells. It is the most common disorder of the blood. It causes fatigue, weakness and poor concentration, among others.

Anestezija (splošna, spinalna, področna ali lokalna)

Pred posegom boste prejeli zdravilo, da ne bi občutili bolečine. Med splošno anestezijo ste v nezavesti in ne veste, kaj se dogajanja okoli vas. Med spinalno ali področno anestezijo ne občutite bolečine v tistem predelu telesa, na katerem se izvaja poseg. Anestezija izzveneva postopoma po opravljenem posegu.


Any condition which does not cause symptoms and is discovered incidentally.

Benign enlargement

Cell growth in the body which is not cancerous.

Benigno povečanje prostate (BPE)

Povečanje prostate zaradi hormonskih sprememb, ki so posledica staranja.


A medical procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.


Is a treatment of cancer with drugs that are toxic to cells. Some are specifically toxic to cells that grow faster than normal, like cancer cells.


Endoskopska naprava, ki jo vstavimo v sečnico (glejte tudi endoskop, uretra/sečnica).


Postopek, v katerem zdravnik pogleda v telo s cistoskopom, vstavljenim skozi sečnico, glejte tudi Cistoskop, uretra/sečnica).

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

A type of kidney tumour with a high content of fat.

Clinical trial

These are experimental research studies designed to answer specific questions about treatments or drugs. They generally test how well a treatment works among patients with specific characteristics.

Contrast agent

A substance that increases the contrast of structures or fluids in the body. It is used in medical imaging (See also Imaging).


Is the use of low temperatures in medical therapy, to treat either benign or malignant cell growth.

Cytoreductive nephrectomy

Cytoreductive means reducing the number of tumour cells. This surgery is specific for metastatic kidney cancer. In this surgical procedure a tumour in the kidney is removed, while leaving distant metastases. The aim of the surgery is to reduce the total tumour cells in the body.


Gladka mišica v steni mehurja. Mišica detruzor ostane sproščena, da mehurju omogoči shranjevanje urina, in se med uriniranjem skrči, da sprosti urin.


The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms.


A non-surgical, minimally-invasive procedure in which a blood vessel is blocked to prevent the blood flow from reaching a tumour.


Cevast inštrument, s katerim pregledamo notranjost telesa. Lahko je gibljiv ali tog.


Large biological molecules that are responsible for the processes of the metabolism.


Glavni ženski spolni hormon, ki vpliva na ženske značilnosti telesa in je pomemben za razmnoževalni in menstrualni ciklus.

Fatty tissue

A type of connective tissue made of cells which store fat. Also called adipose tissue.

Fuhrman nuclear grade

Analysing the aggressiveness of a tumour based on the structure of its cells.


Having to do with the health of the female reproductive system, including the vagina, uterus and ovaries, and the breasts.

Hand-foot syndrome

A side effect of some types of drug therapy for cancer. It causes redness, swelling and pain on the palms of the hands and/or the soles of the feet, and in some cases blisters.

Histopathological analysis

The examination of tissue under a microscope, to study the presence and characteristics of diseases such as cancer.


A type of cancer treatment which boosts the immune system to fight tumour cells.


Vsak postopek, v katerem zdravnik vstavi instrumente v telo ali dele telesa.


A tube that is temporarily placed in the ureter to make sure urine can flow from the kidney to the bladder.


Votla gibka cev za vstavljanje ali odvajanje tekočin iz telesa. V urologiji se katetri na splošno uporabljajo za odvajanje urina iz mehurja.


Two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen that filter the blood and produce urine.


Simptomi ali bolezenska stanja, zaradi katerih je določen načina zdravljenja nezaželen.

Laparoskopska kirurgija

Minimalno invazivna kirurška tehnika, v kateri kirurgu ni treba prerezati skozi kožo in tkivo. Namesto tega kirurg vstavi instrumente skozi majhne zareze na trebušni steni.


Kratek snop čvrstega, fleksibilnega vlaknatega tkiva, ki povezuje dve kosti ali hrustanca ali pa drži skupaj sklep.

Localized kidney cancer

A kidney cancer where the tumour is limited to the kidney and has not spread.

Locally-advanced kidney cancer

A cancer where the tumour has grown out of the kidneys into surrounding tissue and invaded veins, the adrenal gland, or lymph nodes.

Lymph nodes

Small oval-shaped organs that play a role in regulating how the immune system responds.


The surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed because they are enlarged due to the presence of a tumour.

Malignant tumour

A cancerous growth which either grows continuously or in spurts. Malignant tumours can metastasize, which means they spread throughout the body.

Mešano uhajanja seča

Mešanica simptomov stresnega uhajanja seča in zapovedovalnega uhajanja seča.


The surgical procedure to remove metastases. These are tumours that have spread to other organs of the body.

Metastatic disease

When a tumour has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.

Minimally-invasive surgery

A surgical procedure where there is no need to cut through skin and tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical instruments.

Minimalno invaziven poseg

Je kirurški poseg, pri katerem rezanje kože ni potrebno.


Magnetnoresonančno slikanje je tehnika, v kateri se za izdelavo slik telesa uporabljajo močna magnetna polja in radijski valovi.


A combination of different branches of expertise. In medicine, it means that for instance urologists, oncologists, psychologists or other medical specialists work together.


The process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In cancer this process allows tumours to grow.

Nephron-sparing surgery

Another name for partial nephrectomy, the surgical removal of a kidney tumour together with some of the normal kidney tissue. This surgery aims at preserving as much of the kidney tissue as possible.

Nevrogena motnjo delovanja spodnjih sečil

Težave v spodnjih sečilih, ki so posledica motenj živčnega sistema, ki vpliva na aktivnost le-teh.


Potreba po odvajanju seča, ki človeka zbudi iz nočnega spanca.

Nožnični obroček

Majhen topen obroček, ki se vstavi v vagino za zdravljenje okužbe ali kot kontracepcijo sredstvo. Lahko je elastičen ali tog pripomoček, ki se vstavi v vagino za podporo maternice.

Odprt kirurški poseg

Je poseg, pri katerem kirurg prereže kožo in tkiva za neposreden dostop do struktur ali organov.


A medical professional who is dedicated to the diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and general care of a person with any type of cancer.

Palliative care

A concept of care with the goal to optimize your quality of life if you cannot recover from your illness. It involves physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues.


A prickling (“pins and needles”) or tingling (“falling asleep”) sensation of the skin.

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Reactions that the body can have to any type of cancer and may include high blood pressure, weight loss, fever, anaemia, muscle mass loss, and loss of appetite.

Partial nephrectomy

A surgical procedure in which a part of the kidney is removed.


A medical professional who studies tissue, blood, or urine to understand the specific characteristics of diseases. In cancer treatment, the pathologist helps with the diagnosis and classification of tumours.

Perinej ali presredek

Predel kože in mišičja pri moškem med mošnjo in anusom, pri ženski med vulvo in anusom.

Perinephric haematoma

A collection of blood next to or around the kidney.

Perirenal fat

The fat that surrounds the kidney.


Lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms and legs, caused by a minor haemorrhage in the blood vessels of the skin.

Primary tumour

The malignant cell growth located where the tumour first began to develop.


The medical term for predicting the likely outcome of health after treatment.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer.

Računalniška tomografija (CT)

Preiskava, s katero naredimo številne rentgenske posnetke telesa. CT pomeni računalniška tomografija.

Radiation therapy

A type of cancer treatment that uses radiation to control or kill malignant cells.

Radical nephrectomy

A surgical procedure in which the entire kidney is removed.

Radiofrequency ablation

A medical procedure which uses the heat generated from high-frequency currents to treat kidney tumours.


A medical professional who specialises in imaging techniques. In cancer, the radiologist analyses x-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI, or other scans to diagnose or monitor the tumour.


The return of cancer after treatment and after a period of time in which the cancer could not be detected. This can happen either in the place where the cancer first was detected, or somewhere else in the body. There is no standard period of time, but most doctors would consider it a recurrence if the cancer had not been detected again for at least one year.


Related to the kidneys.

Renal artery

The artery that carries a large portion of the blood flow that needs to be filtered to the kidneys.

Renal artery clamp

An instrument used during surgery. The blood flow through the renal artery is blocked with a device called a clamp that compresses the artery.

Renal cell carcinoma

Medical name of kidney cancer.

Renal cyst

Fluid-filled sacs located on the kidney. Cysts can be malignant.

Renal fascia

Also called Gerota’s fascia, it is a layer of connective tissue that surrounds the kidneys.

Renal vein

This is the vein that carries the blood filtered by the kidney back into the body.

Sečni mehur

Organ, v katerem se zbira seč, ki priteče iz ledvic.

Simptomi prekomerno aktivnega sečnega mehurja

Zbirka simptomov zbiranja urina, vključno z nujnostjo, inkontinenco, pogostnostjo in nokturijo.


Preiskava telesa z ultrazvokom, rentgenskimi ali drugimi tehnikami skeniranja.

Sramna ustnica/labia

Notranja in zunanja guba vulve, na obeh straneh vagine.


Stalni urinski kateter

Cevka, ki se vstavi skozi sečnico v mehur, da vam pomaga pri uriniranju.

Stena mehurja

Različne plasti tkiva, ki oblikujejo mehur.

Surgical robot system

An instrument to help doctors perform laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon controls the robotic instrument with remote control sensors.

Targeted therapy

These are drugs that target the mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow.


A gland found in the neck which controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins and how sensitive it is to other hormones.

TNM classification

The Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) classification is an international classification used to classify tumours according to the size and invasiveness of the tumour (T), whether any lymph nodes are affected (N) and if the cancer has spread to any other parts of your body (M).

Treatment pathway

One of the main management tools for doctors. The different tasks or interventions are defined, optimized and set in a specific order. With this the medical team can work on the health of a patient together.

Tumour spillage

When tumour cells reach the blood or another organ during surgery. These cells may grow in a different location and develop into tumours.

Tumour stage

This refers to how extended a cancer is in the body. It is usually based on the size of the tumour and whether the tumour has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs.


Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body.


One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.


A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.


To pomeni, da se počutite bolj utrujene kot običajno, da ste brez energije in da se utrujenost po spanju ne izboljša. Morda boste imeli bolečine v sklepih, mišicah in v prsnem košu.

Vena Cava

The large vein that returns blood with low oxygen from the body into the heart.

Vrat mehurja

Skupina mišic, ki povezuje sečni mehur s sečnico. Te mišice se skrčijo, da zadržijo urin v mehurju in se sprostijo, da urin preide v sečnico.

Začasni urinski kateter

Cevka, ki se začasno vstavi skozi sečnico v mehur, da vam pomaga pri uriniranju. Intermitentni kateter se ročno vstavi in odstrani večkrat na dan, da bolnik popolnoma izprazni mehur.

Zdravljenje prve izbire

Prvo zdravljenje za nadzor bolezni. Pogosto je del standardnega nabora možnosti zdravljenja.