Glossary

Urinary Incontinence

Abdominal cavity

The space in the body that contains all the abdominal organs (including bladder, kidneys, urinary tract, genital structures)

Abdominal wall

The muscle and tissue that surrounds the abdominal cavity

Adenocarcinoma

A type of cancer that starts in and has features of glandular cells

Adjuvant therapy

A therapy that is given after surgery or radiotherapy (for example, chemotherapy)

Advanced cancer

A tumour that grows into deeper layers of tissue, adjacent organs, or surrounding muscles.

Agglutination

Adhesions of the foreskin to the glans that tend to resolve spontaneously.

Amyloidosis

A disease that occurs when a substance called amyloid builds up in your organs. Amyloid is an abnormal protein that is usually produced in your bone marrow and can be deposited in any tissue or organ.

Anaesthesia (general, spinal, or local)

Before a procedure you will get medication to make sure that you don’t feel pain. Under general anaesthesia you are unconscious and unaware of what is happening to you. Under spinal or local anaesthesia you will not feel pain in the part of your body where the procedure is done. Anaesthesia wears off gradually after the procedure.

Androgen

Group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone

Artery embolisation

Temporary block of the vessels supplying blood to the penis.

Aspiration

The process of drawing a substance (eg, blood) from the body.

Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE)

An enlargement of the prostate related to hormonal changes with age.

Bimanual examination

An examination of the abdomen or pelvis performed with both hands.

Bladder

Organ which collects urine from the kidneys.

Bladder neck

The group of muscles that connect the bladder to the urethra. These muscles contract to keep the urine in the bladder, and relax to let the urine pass to the urethra.

Bladder wall

The different layers of tissue that shape the bladder.

Boutonniere

A surgically created opening for the urethra in the perineum.

Buried penis

The penis is not visible or is inside the skin.

Cancer

Abnormal cell growth in the skin or organ tissue

Carcinoma

A cancer that arises from lining cells (epithelia)

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

A type of squamous cell cancer that affects only the cells in the skin and has not grown any deeper.

Cardiovascular

Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.

Catheter

A hollow flexible tube to insert or drain fluids from the body. In urology, catheters are generally used to drain urine from the bladder.

Chronic infection

An infection that lasts over a long period of time.

Circumcision

Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

Collagen

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It helps connective tissue to be strong and provides cushioning for various parts of the body.

Congenital

A condition existing before birth that is due to different causes.

Contraindications

Any symptoms or conditions that make a certain treatment option undesirable.

Corpus cavernosa

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus cavernosum (plural, corpora cavernosa)

Two chambers that run the length of the penis and are filled with spongy tissue. Blood flows in and fills the open spaces in this spongy tissue to create an erection.

Corpus spongiosum

The mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.

Cryptorchidism

An absence of one or both testes in the scrotum.

CT scan

CT stands for Computed Tomography. It is an imaging technique that makes a series of x-ray images of the body.

CT urography

CT stands for computed tomography. CT urography is an imaging technique that uses contrast agent to improve the visibility of the lymph nodes and abdominal organs during the CT scan.

CUP

Cancer of Unknown Primary; a cancer with metastasis and without known primary cancer.

Curvature

Any normal or abnormal curving of a body part.

Cystoscope

A type of endoscope which is used in the urethra (see also Endoscope, Urethra).

Cystoscopy

It is a procedure in which the doctor looks inside your body with a cystoscope inserted through the urethra

Detrusor

A smooth muscle found in the bladder wall. The detrusor muscle remains relaxed to allow the bladder to store the urine, and contracts during urination to release the urine.

Diabetes

A disorder of the metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of urine.

Diagnosis

The doctor and nurses do a series of tests to understand what causes your symptoms.

Distant metastases

Tumours that have spread from the original site to other organs or bone.

Diverticulum

A pouch that develops in a tubular structure in the body, such as the urethra.

Doppler ultrasound

A noninvasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells.

Dupuytren’s contracture

A condition that affects the hands and fingers (also called Dupuytren’s disease). It causes one or more fingers to bend into the palm of the hand. It can affect one or both hands and sometimes affects the thumb.

Ecchymosis

Subcutaneous bleeding, hematoma.

Ectopic testis

The testis descended outside the scrotum

Embryologic structure

A tissue or structure formed during development of an embryo

Endocrinological evaluation

Measures of the levels of certain hormones produced by your body.

Endoscope

A tube-like instrument to examine the inside of the body. Can be flexible or rigid.

Epididymis

Cord-like structure on the top and back of each testicle that carries sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.

Fabry’s disease

Abnormal deposits of a fatty substance called globotriaosylceramide in blood vessel walls throughout the body.

Fascia

A flat band of tissue below the skin that covers underlying tissues and separates different layers of tissue. Fascia also encloses muscles.

Fatigue

This means you feel more tired than usual, you are out of energy, and it doesn’t get better after you sleep. You may also experience pain in your joints, muscles, and chest.

Fertility rate

The number of offspring born per mating pair, individual, or population.

Fibrosis

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

First-line treatment

The first treatment given for a disease. It is often part of a standard set of treatment options.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to sperm production.

Gene

A certain area on a chromosome as a matrix for a certain cell component.

General anaesthesia

The state when the patient is completely unconscious and unable to feel pain during medical procedures.

Genetic evaluation

Investigation of the influence of genes on diseases

Glansectomy

Removal of just the head of the penis.

Gynecological

Having to do with the health of the female reproductive system, including the vagina, uterus and ovaries, and the breasts.

Haematocrit

Measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells (percentage volume).

Haematogenous metasis

Cancer cells which have spread over the blood stream and formed a metastasis.

Haematology

The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood.

Hemochromatosis

Too much iron in the blood can cause testicular failure or pituitary gland dysfunction, by accumulating in this tissue.

Histiocytosis

Histiocytosis is a general name for a group of disorders or “syndromes” that involve an abnormal increase in the number of specialized white blood cells that are called histiocytes.

Histologic examination

Examination of tissue cells under a microscope.

Histological evaluation

The examination of tissue under a microscope.

HPV infection

Infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted disease; some types of HPV can cause cancer.

Hypospadias

An abnormality of the urethra (tube that the urine flows through out of the penis) that is present at birth. The urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.

Hypothalamus

Small part at the base of the brain that links nervous system with the endocrine system by the pituitary gland.

Imaging

Taking images of the body with ultrasound, x-ray or other scanning techniques.

Indwelling catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to help you urinate.

Infertility

When a couple who has unprotected intercourse for a period of two years cannot conceive a baby.

Intermittent catheter

A tube placed in the urethra and bladder to help you urinate. An intermittent catheter is manually placed and removed several times a day, to empty the bladder fully.

Intramuscular injections

Injections into the muscle often in the buttock or your arm.

Intravenous

Injection into a vein, usually in the arm.

Invasive

Any procedure in which the doctor inserts instruments into the body, or parts of the body.

Irrigation

Injection of a solution into the body to cleanse and administer drugs at a specific site.

Ischemia

A restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed to keep tissue alive. Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels and causes damage to tissue.

Laparoscopic surgery

A minimally-invasive surgical technique in which the surgeon does not need to cut through skin and tissue. Instead, the surgeon inserts the surgical instruments through small incisions in your abdomen.

Laparoscopy

A surgical procedure used to examine and operate the organs in the abdominal cavity

Laser therapy

Use of a laser to cut away cancer cells.

Leukaemia

A cancer that arises from the blood-forming tissue.

Ligament

A short band of tough, flexible fibrous tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.

Local invasion

Cancer that has grown into the tissue surrounding the location where it started.

Local resection

Surgery to remove a tumour that has not spread to other tissues or organs.

Localised disease

A tumour that is limited to the organ where it started and has not spread.

Localized cancer

Cancer that remains in the location where it started.

Locally advanced disease

A tumour that has grown out of the organ where it started into the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Luteinizing hormone secreted by pituitary gland. In men stimulates testes to testosterone production.

Lymph node metastatis

Cancer cells which have spread over the lymphatic system and formed a metastasis in a lymph node.

Lymphoma

A cancer that arises from white blood cells (lymphocytes).

Macroscopy

What you can see with the naked eye.

Melanoma

A cancer that arises from pigmented cells (melanocytes).

Metastases

Cancer cells that have spread from the original site of cancer to other tissues or organs.

Metastasis

The spread of cancer from one site in the body to another without direct connection between both sites.

Micrometastasis

A metastasis that is not visible to the naked eye or on special imaging studies usually made up from only few cancer cells.

Microscopy

What you can see through a microscope.

Minimally-invasive surgery

A surgical procedure where there is no need to cut through skin and tissue. Small incisions are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical instruments.

Mixed urinary incontinence

Having symptoms of both stress urinary incontinence and urgency urinary incontinence.

Molecular

Regarding molecules (the smallest particles).

Molecular techniques

Methods to get information about the molecules, for example of the genes.

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an imaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to make images of the body.

MRI scan

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a technique in which strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used to make images of the body.

Mucinous histology

Mucus-producing cells that can be found in histologic examination under the microscope or by using a specific colouring test.

Mucosa

A mucous tissue lining.

Mucusuria

Mucus in the urine.

Multidisciplinary tumour board

A team of practitioners from different medical specialties who share their professional opinions to plan care for individual cancer patients.

Mumps infection

It is a contagious viral infection of the salivary gland with fever, headache and swelling of the salivary gland in the cheeks.

Neobladder

A substitute reservoir to hold urine after the bladder is removed.

Neomeatus

A surgically created opening for the urethra in the penile shaft.

Neoplasm

New abnormal growth of tissue.

Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

A complication in the lower urinary tract caused by problems in the nervous system that influences its activity.

Nocturia

Waking up one or more times during the night because of the need to urinate.

Non-seminoma

A type of testicular cancer that usually affects younger men and is more likely to grow and spread quickly.

Oestrogen

The main female sex hormones which control female characteristics of the body and are important to the reproductive and menstrual cycle.

Open surgery

A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.

Overactive Bladder Symptoms

A collection of urinary storage symptoms, including urgency, incontinence, frequency and nocturia.

Pad test

During the pad test your doctor asks you to wear an absorbent pad. Usually the test lasts between 1 and 24 hours. You have to weigh the amount of urine absorbed by the pad.

Paraphimosis

The foreskin stuck in the retracted position behind the head of the penis. It is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.

Paternity

The actual potential of fatherhood.

Pelvic floor muscles

Muscles that support the pelvic organs, including the bladder and rectum.

Pelvic lymph nodes

The sum of lymph nodes collecting the lymphatic drainage of the legs, pelvis and pelvic organs.

Penectomy

Surgical removal of part (partial) or all (total) of the penis.

Perineum

The area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva.

Pessary

A small soluble block that is inserted into the vagina to treat infection or as a contraceptive. It can also be an elastic or rigid device that is inserted into the vagina to support the uterus.

Phimosis

The inability to retract the foreskin over the head of the penis.

Pituitary gland

Small endocrine gland in the brain, originating in the hypothalamus, secreting a variety of hormones.

Plaque

An semi-hardened accumulation of substances from fluids that bathe an area. Examples include dental plaque and cholesterol plaque.

Post void residual urine (PVR)

The amount of urine left in the bladder after urination.

Primary cancer

The first type of cancer to develop, the cancer of origin.

Primary urethral cancer

A malignant tumour in the urethra.

Prostate

The gland which produces the fluid which carries semen. It is located in the male lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra.

Prostatectomy

A surgical procedure in which part of or the entire prostate is removed.

Puberty

A natural process when a child’s body changes into adult body that is able to have an intercourse and reproduce.

PUVA

A type of chemotherapy (psoralens) combined with exposure to ultraviolet light, used to treat severe skin disorders.

Radiotherapy

A type of therapy using radiation to kill cancer cells.

Rectum

The final section of the large intestine, ending at the anus.

Relapse

When a cancer has come back (Recurrence).

Remission

A state when there is no sign of cancer detectable.

Resection

Removal of tumours from an organ.

Retropubic

Behind the pelvic bone.

RPLND

Removal of the lymph nodes at the back of the abdomen (also called “Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection” ). This surgery is considered for men with a high risk of cancer spreading. It might also be performed to remove any cancer that remains after chemotherapy.

Sarcoidosis

Inflammatory disease that affects different organs mainly lungs and lymph nodes. Collections of cells called granulomas can be found in affected tissue.

Sarcoma

A cancer that arises from other tissues in the body such as bone, cartilage, connective and fat tissue, muscle, nerves or vessels.

Scrotum

A pouch of skin containing the testicles.

Second-line treatment

Treatment that is given when initial treatment does not work, or stops working.

Secondary cancer

A tumour that grows from the metastasized cells of primary cancer.

Seminoma

A type of testicular cancer that can grow in men of any age but is less aggressive than non-seminoma.

Sentinel node

The lymph node closest to the tumour that would hold metastatic cells, if present.

Sex glands

In male: testes, in female: ovaries.

Sex hormones

In male androgens – group of steroid hormones, represented mainly by testosterone.

Sickle cell disease

A condition in which there are not enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout the body.

Skin graft

A piece of skin taken from one part of the body and placed on another part (usually a wound).

Sleep apnea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.

Sleep apnoea

Sleep disorder characterized by shallow breathing or pauses in breathing.

Spongy urethra

Spongy tissue surrounding the urethra.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Cancer that specifically affects epithelial cells.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)

When your urethra or urinary sphincter cannot resist the pressure of a full bladder. As a result, you lose urine when the pressure on your lower urinary tract suddenly increases. This can happen during activities like coughing, sneezing, or laughing, exercise like running or jumping, or carrying heavy things like groceries.

Superficial cancer

A tumour that grows on the tissue surface without growing into deeper layers or adjacent organs. This type of cancer represents an early stage.

Systemic disease

Disease that affects the entire body.

Testicular cancer

A growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle and can spread throughout the body.

Thalassemia

A blood disorder characterized by less haemoglobin and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.

Titanium port

The non-metallic part of an Artificial Urinary Sphincter (AUS) that serves to adjust the pressure of the device.

Transobturator

Through the natural space in the hip bone.

Tuberculosis

A disease caused by breathing in a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually infects the lungs. TB can also infect other parts of the body, including the kidneys, spine and brain.

Tumour

A growth of abnormal cells.

Tumour grade

The potential of a tumour to grow aggressively.

Tumour markers

High levels of certain proteins that suggest testicular cancer. Tumour markers are measured in a blood sample.

Tunica albuginea

The whitish membrane within the penis that surrounds the spongy chambers (corpora cavernosa). The tunica albuginea helps trap blood in the corpora cavernosa, thereby sustaining erection of the penis.

TUR

TUR stands for Transurethral Resection. A tube-like instrument is used to remove tissue through the urethra (the canal through which the urine is passed).

Ultrasonography

Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds to make an image of the inside of the body (ultrasound).

Umbilical discharge

Substance produced by the navel.

Urachal residues

Traces of the tissue or cells that formed the urachus before birth

Urachus

A tube-like embryologic structure that connects the forming urinary bladder and the navel before birth.

Urethra

The tube which carries urine from the bladder and out of the body.

Urethrectomy

Removal of the urethra. Removal can be partial or complete.

Urgency

The sudden need to urinate which is difficult to postpone.

Urgency urinary incontinence

Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) happens when you get a sudden need to urinate which you cannot postpone. The bladder muscle contracts and you urinate when you do not want to.

Urinary cytology

The examination of a urine sample for exfoliated cancer cells.

Urinary diversion

A surgical procedure to construct an alternative means of storing and passing urine.

Urinary frequency

The need to urinate more often than usual, generally more than 8 times a day.

Urinary incontinence

Involuntary loss of urine.

Urinary sphincter

The muscles used to control the exit of urine in the bladder, through the urethra. When either one of the muscles contracts, the urethra is sealed shut.

Urinary stoma

An artificial opening for passing urine.

Urinary swab test

Also known as “urine dip test” or just a “urine test”. A test strip is dipped into collected urine to colour-indicate the pH level and the presence of electrolytes and cells.

Urinary tract

The organ system which produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.

Urinary tract

The organ system that produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, but the urethra is longer in men.

Urination cycle

The urination cycle has two phases. One is when the bladder fills up, and it is followed by the urination phase, where the bladder empties.

Urine leakage

The accidental escape of urine from the bladder.

Uroflowmeter

A special funnel that is used during a uroflowmetry test. The funnel is connected to a measuring instrument that calculates the amount of urine, rate of flow in seconds, and length of time until you finish urinating.

Urologist

A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.

Urothelial carcinoma

Typically occurs within the urinary tract and affects urothelial cells, as opposed to other types of cells in the urinary tract.

Vagina

The muscular tube leading from the external genitals to the cervix of the uterus in women.

Vulva

The female external genitals.

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